The future of raising finance - a new opportunity to commit fraud: a review of initial coin offering (ICOs) scams

  • Milind Tiwari
  • Adrian GeppEmail author
  • Kuldeep Kumar


Over one billion US dollars were invested in blockchain in 2016. The potential application of blockchain extends far beyond cryptocurrencies. One use of blockchain is an Initial Coin Offering (ICO), a digital method of raising finance involving issuance of tokens in exchange for cryptocurrencies or fiat money. It is a cheaper, easier and quicker way to raise funds compared with traditional public offerings. However, it has raised a new opportunity for fraud. An estimated 10% of ICO funds have been lost to fraud. Using case-study analysis, this study determines characteristics of such fraud schemes and the regulatory changes made in response to them. The study reveals key lessons for investors in terms of proactive steps that can be taken to protect themselves from being victims, for issuers to ensure awareness and take steps to secure investors’ trust, and for regulators to promote a safe environment. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to document the effect of ICO fraud schemes on the regulatory environment, which is going through a series of amendments to provide protection against such fraudulent schemes. Additionally, it provides direction for future research to further investigate the risks of this new method of raising funds.



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© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Bond Business SchoolBond UniversityGold CoastAustralia

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