Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 60, Issue 4, pp 429–455 | Cite as

Public-private partnerships in the fight against terrorism?

  • Oldrich BuresEmail author


Based on a case study of the role of private financial institutions in the fight against terrorist financing, this article examines the rationales for, and actual results of, public-private partnerships in counterterrorism. It shows that there is still a lack of appreciation of the roles that regular private business play, both willingly and unwillingly, in the fight against terrorism. As profit, rather than security, maximizers, private sector actors may decide to take certain security risks rather than addressing them directly, which in contrast is expected from public agencies. As a consequence, public-private partnerships have not been the silver bullet that the representatives of public agencies had hoped for since 9/11. In fact, to many private sector representatives, they are more akin to public-private dictatorships.


Corporate Social Responsibility Public Authority Money Laundering Private Actor Private Sector Actor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The author gratefully acknowledges financial support of the Czech Science Foundation under the standard research grant no. P408/11/0395.


  1. 1.
    Abrahamsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2009). Security beyond the state: global security assemblages in international politics. International Political Sociology, 3(1), 1–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Abrahamsen, R., & Williams, M. C. (2011). Security beyond the state: Private security in international politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Avant, D. (2004). The market for force: The consequences of privatizing security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aviram, A., & Tor, A. (2004). Overcoming impediments to information. Alabama Law Review, 55, 231–279.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ballentine, K., & Sherman, J. (2003). The political economy of armed conflict: Beyond greed and grievance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Banker editor (2003). Money laundry Monitor. The Banker. Retrieved 26.6.2011, from
  7. 7.
    Berdal, M., & Malone, D. M. (2000). Greed and grievance: Economic agendas in civil wars. Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Biersteker, T. J., & Eckert, S. E. (2007). Countering the financing of terrorism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Boerzel, T. A., & Risse, T. (2002). Public-private partnerships: Effective and Legitimate Tools of Transnational Governance? In Grande, E., & Pauly, L. W., (Eds.) Complex sovereignty: On the reconstitution of political authority in the 21st century (1–22). Retrieved 2.6.2012, from
  10. 10.
    Brzoska, M. (2011). The role of effectiveness and efficiency in the european union's counterterrorism policy: The case of terrorist financing. Economics of Security Working Paper 51. Retrieved 28.8.2011, from
  11. 11.
    Bures, O. (2008). Europol’s fledgling counterterrorism role. Terrorism and Political Violence, 20(4), 498–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bures, O. (2011). EU counterterrorism policy: A paper tiger? Burlington: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bush, G. W. (2001). President freezes terroristsassets. Retrieved 20.5.2006, from The White House:
  14. 14.
    Cameron, I. (2003). UN targeted sanctions, legal safeguards and the european convention on human rights. Nordic Journal of International Law, 72(2), 159–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cameron, I. (2006). Terrorist financing in international law. In I. Bantekas (Ed.), International and european financial criminal law (pp. 65–95). London: Butterworths/Lexis Nexis.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chesterman, S., & Lehnardt, C. (2007). From mercenaries to market: The rise and regulation of private military companies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Collier, S. J., & Lakoff, A. (2008). The vulnerability of vital systems: How critical infrastructure became a security problem. In M. D. Cavelty & K. S. Kristensen (Eds.), Securing ‘the homeland’: Critical infrastructure, risk and (In)security (pp. 17–39). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Deitelhoff, N., & Wolf, K. D. (2010). Corporate security responsibility: Corporate governance contributions to peace and security in zones of conflict. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dempsey, J. S. (2011). Introduction to private security. Belmont: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Den Boer, M., Hillerbrand, C., & Nölke, A. (2008). Legitimacy under pressure: The European web of counter-terrorism networks. Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(1), 101–124.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Donohue, L. K. (2008). The cost of counterterrorism: Power, politics, and liberty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Douglas, M., & Wildavsky, A. (1982). Risk and culture. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dunn-Cavelty, M., & Kristensen, K. S. (2008). Securing ‘the homeland’: Critical infrastructure, risk and (In)security. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Dunn-Cavelty, M., & Suter, M. (2009). Public–Private Partnerships are no silver bullet: An expanded governance model for Critical Infrastructure Protection. International Journal of Critical Infrastructure Protection, 2(4), 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Edwards, G., & Meyer, C. O. (2008). Introduction: charting a contested transformation. Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(1), 1–25.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Favarel-Garrigues, G., Godefroy, T., & Lascoumes, P. (2011). Reluctant partners? Banks in the fight against money laundering and terrorism financing in France. Security Dialogue, 42(2), 179–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Financial Action Task Force (2007, June). Guidance on the risk-based approach to combating money laundering and terrorist financing: High level principles and proce­dures. Retrieved 21.11.2008, from
  28. 28.
    Forman, M. M. (2006). Combating terrorist financing and other finanincal crime through public sector partnerships. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 9(1), 112–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Foucault, M. (1976). Histoire de la sexualité, vol. 1: La volonté de savoir [The History of Sexuality Vol. 1: The Will to Knowledge]. Paris: Gallimard.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Foucault, M., & Miskowiec, J. (1986). Of other spaces. Diacritics, 16(1), 22–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Friedman, M. (1970, 13.09.). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profit. The New York Times Magazine, 32--33.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Geiger, H., & Wuensch, O. (2007). The fight against money laundering—an economic analysis of a cost-benefit paradoxon. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 10(1), 91–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Gelemerova, L. (2009). On the frontline against money laundering: the regulatory minefield. Crime Law Soc Change, 52, 33–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Gill, P. (2006). Not just joining the dots but crossing the borders and bridging the voids: constructing security networks after 11 September 2001. Policing and Society, 16(1), 27–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Gunaratna, R. (2007). Combating Al-Qaida and Associated Groups. In D. Zimmermann & A. Wenger (Eds.), How states fight terrorism: Policy dynamics in the west (pp. 175–200). Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Inc.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Harvey, J., & Lau, S. F. (2009). Crime-money, reputation and reporting. Crime Law Soc Change, 52, 57–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hayes, J. K., & Ebinger, C. K. (2011). The private sector and the role of risk and responsibility in securing the nation’s infrastructure. Journal of Homeland Security and Emergency Management, 8(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Home Office. (2006). The report of the official account of the bombings in London on 7 July 2005 (HC 1087). Retrieved 18.1.2009, from London: The Stationery Office:
  39. 39.
    House of Lords, S. C. o. E. S. (2007). Memorandum by Professor Peter Fitzgerald, Stetson University College of Law. In The impact of economic sanctions (Volume II: Evidence). Retrieved 26.01.2009, from
  40. 40.
    Jäger, T., & Kümmel, G. (2007). Private military and security companies: Chances, problems, pitfalls and prospects. VS Verlag für Sozialwissenschaften.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    John Howell & Co. (2007). Independent scrutiny: The EUs efforts in the fight against terrorist financing in the context of the financial action task forces nine special recommendations and the EU counter terrorist financing strategy. European Commission (1–46).Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Johnston, B. R., & Carrington, I. (2006). Protection the financial system from abuse: challenges to banks in implementing AML/CTF standards. Journal of Money Laundering Control, 9(1), 48–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Klare, M. T. (2001). Resource wars: The new landscape of global conflict. New York: Owl Books.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kohler-Koch, B., & Rittberger, B. (2006). Review article: the ‘Governance Turn’ in EU Studies. Journal of Common Market Studies, 44, 27–49. Annual Review.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Krahmann, E. (2005). Security governance and networks: new theoretical perspectives in transatlantic security. Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 18(1), 15–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Krahmann, E. (2008). Security: collective good or commodity? European Journal of International Relations, 14(3), 379–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kristensen, K. S. (2008). ‘The absolute protection of our citizens’: Critical infrastructure protection and the practice of security. In M. D. Cavelty & K. S. Kristensen (Eds.), Securing ‘the homeland’: Critical infrastructure, risk and (In)security (pp. 63–83). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Lee, E. (2009). Homeland security and private sector business: Corporation's role in critical infrastructure protection. New York: CRC Press.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Levi, M. (2007). Lessons for countering terrorist financing from the war on serious and organized crime. In T. J. Biersteker & S. E. Eckert (Eds.), Countering the financing of terrorism (pp. 260–288). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Linder, S. H., & Rosenau, P. V. (2000). Mapping the terrain of the public-private policy partnership. In P. V. Rosenau (Ed.), Public-private policy partnerships. Cambridge: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Loader, I. (1999). Consumer culture and the commodification of policing and security. Sociology, 33(2), 373–392.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Minow, M. (2003). Public and private partnerships. Accounting for the new religion. Harvard Law Review, 116(1), 1229–1270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Musah, A.-F. (2002). Privatization of security, arms proliferation and the process of state collapse in Africa. Development and Change, 33(5), 911–933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Müller-Wille, B. (2004). For our eyes only? Shaping an intelligence community within the EU. Paris: Institute for Security Studies. Occasional Papers No. 50).Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Müller-Wille, B. (2008). The effect of international terrorism on EU intelligence co-operation. Journal of Common Market Studies, 46(1), 49–73.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Naylor, R. (2004). Wages of crime. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Nettesheim, M. (2007). U.N. sanctions against individuals—a challenge to the architecture of European Union Governance. Common Market Law Review, 44, 567–600.Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    O’Malley, P., & Palmer, D. (1996). Post-keynesian policing. Economy and Society, 25(2), 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ortiz, C. (2010). Private armed forces and global security: A guide to the issues. Santa Barbara: Praeger.Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Ougaard, M. (2010). Introducing business and global governance. In M. Ougaard & A. Leander (Eds.), Business and global governance (pp. 1–36). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Parker, M., & Taylor, M. (2010). Financial intelligence: a price worth paying? Studies in Conflict & Terrorism, 33(11), 949–959.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Percy, S. (2007). Mercenaries: The history of a norm in international relations. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Petersen, K. L. (2008). Risk, responsibility and roles redefined: Is counterterrorism a corporate responsibility? Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 21(3), 403–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    President of the United States (2010). National security strategy. Retrieved from
  65. 65.
    PriceWaterhouseCoopers (2007). Economic crime: People, culture and controls. The 4th biennial Global Economic Crime Survey. Retrieved 20.1.2008, from
  66. 66.
    Renn, O. (1998). Three decades of risk research: accomplishments and new challenges. Journal of Risk Research, 1(1), 49–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Reuter, P., & Truman, E. (2004). Chasing dirty money: The fight against money laundering. Washington, D.C: Peterson Institute for International Economics.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Rhinard, M., Boin, A., & Ekengren, M. (2007). Managing terrorism: Institutional capacities and counter-terrorism policy in the EU. In D. Spence (Ed.), The european union and terrorism (pp. 88–104). London: John Harper Publishing.Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Scherer, A. G., & Palazzo, G. (2011). The new political role of business in a globalized world: a review of a new perspective on CSR and its implications for the firm, governance and democracy. Journal of Management Studies, 48(4), 899–931.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Schmid, A. (2004). Terrorism - the definitional problem. Case Western Reserve Journal of International Law, 36(2), 375–419.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Singer, P. W. (2003). Corporate warriors: The rise of the privatized military industry. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Takats, E. (2007, April). A theory of crying wolf: The economics of money laundering enforcement. IMF Working paper 07/81. Retrieved 28.8.2011, from
  73. 73.
    Tavares, C., Thomas, G., & Roudaut, M. (2010). Money laundering in Europe: Report of work carried out by Eurostat and DG Home Affairs. Eurostat Methodologies and Working Paper. European Commission. Retrieved 28.8.2011, from Scholar
  74. 74.
    The Economist. (2001, 27.9.). Getting to them through their money. The Economist. Retrieved 23.11.2011, from
  75. 75.
    The National Commission on Terrorist Attacks Upon the United States. (2004). The 9/11 Commission Report. Retrieved 21.11.2008, from
  76. 76.
    Tsingou, E. (2005). Global governance and transnational financial crime: Opportunities and tensions in the global anti-money laundering regime. CSGR Working Paper No 161/05. Retrieved 28.7.2011, from
  77. 77.
    UN Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team. (2004). First report of the Analytical Support and Sanctions Monitoring Team appointed pursuant to resolution 1526 (2004) concerning Al-Qaida and the Taliban and associated individuals and entities (S/2004/679). Retrieved 29/04/2008, from
  78. 78.
    US Department of the Treasury. (2003). Oral Testimony of David D. Aufhauser General Counsel, Department of the Treasury before the Judiciary Subcommittee on Terrorism, Technology and Homeland Security. Retrieved 21.11.2008, from
  79. 79.
    Verhage, A. (2008). Between the hammer and the anvil? The anti-money laundering-complex and its interactions with the compliance industry. Crime, Law and Social Change, 52, 9–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Verkuil, P. R. (2007). Outsourcing sovereignty. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Vlcek, W. (2005). Securitization beyond borders: Exceptionalism inside the EU and impact on policing beyond borders European measures to combat terrorist financing and the tension between liberty and security. Challenge Working Paper Work Package 2. Retrieved 20.1.2008, from
  82. 82.
    Webber, M., Croft, S., Howorth, J., Terriff, T., & Krahmann, E. (2004). The governance of European security. Review of International Studies, 30(1), 3–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Wesseling, M. (2009). New spaces governing the EUs Fight against Terrorism Financing. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the ISA’s 50th ANNUAL CONVENTION “EXPLORING THE PAST, ANTICIPATING THE FUTURE,” New York Marriott Marquis, NEW YORK CITY, NY, USA, Feb 15, 2009. Retrieved 21.2.2010, from
  84. 84.
    Yeandle, M., Mainelli, M., Berendt, A., & Healy, B. (2005). Anti-money laundering requirements: Costs, Benefits and Perceptions. Retrieved 14.5.2011, from Corporation of London:

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of International Relations and European StudiesMetropolitan University PraguePragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations