Advertisement

Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 59, Issue 5, pp 517–535 | Cite as

Progressive lawyers under siege: Moral panic during the McCarthy era

  • Colin Wark
  • John F. Galliher
Article
  • 228 Downloads

Abstract

Our goal is to analyze the culture within the San Francisco law firm of Gladstein, Andersen and Leonard (circa 1945–1965). For this we utilize archival documents, FBI files, oral histories, and personal interviews. The law firm represented alleged subversives, including Harry Bridges the longtime president of the International Longshore and Warehouse Union. Thus, the law firm partners were stigmatized by the clients they represented and they all had lengthy FBI files. The partners all had working class backgrounds, one was an immigrant and two were Jewish. Clearly, religion and ethnicity were not litmus tests for participation in the firm, nor was educational pedigree. Gladstein and Leonard graduated from elite law schools while Andersen did his legal training at a night school. During the dark days of the Cold War various partners were threatened, shot and jailed for merely engaging in their legal practice. Ironically, as the FBI blacklisted alleged subversives, these attorneys had more clients to defend.

Keywords

Communist Party Attorney General Moral Panic Legal Practice Defense Counsel 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Andersen, D. (2012). E-mail to John Galliher. July 17.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Auerbach, J. S. (1976). Unequal justice: lawyers and social change in modern America. New York: Oxford Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bailey, P. R. (1982). The case of the National Lawyers Guild, 1939–1958. In A. G. Theoharis (Ed.), Beyond the Hiss case: The FBI, Congress and the Cold War (pp. 129–175). Philadelphia: Temple Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Barnes, B. (1990). Obituaries; Longshoremen’s union leader Harry Bridges dies. Washington Post, March 31. B4.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brown, R. S., Jr. (1958). Loyalty and security: Employment tests in the United States. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Carder, W. (2012). E-mail to John F. Galliher, August 13.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Congress, C. R. (1952). Lawyers under fire. New York: Civil Rights Congress.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Costantinou, M. (2006). Norman Leonard—noted labor, civil rights lawyer. SFGate.com, March 11. http://articles.sfgate.com/2006-03-11/bay-area/17284168_1_mr-leonard-norman-leonard-law-firm.
  9. 9.
    Declarations of Candidacy. (1935). San Francisco General Municipal Election. November 5.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Declarations of Candidacy. (1937). San Francisco General Municipal Election. November 2.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dispatcher. (1949). Gladstein withdraws from Bridges case to serve term for contempt. October 28, pp. 1, 12.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Dispatcher. (1951). Immigration service stoolpigeon parade fails to prove charges against local 7-C’s Mensalvas. April 13: 8.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Dispatcher. (1952). Locals ask parole for R. Gladstein. July 4: 6.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Dispatcher. (1962a). K-L-G law case: Union’s right to elect gets first court test. April 6: 1, 8.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dispatcher. (1962b). Archie Brown is sentenced; appeals case. May 18: 1.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dispatcher. (1963). Archie Brown appeal argued before 8 judges; may go higher. December 27: 1, 3.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Dispatcher. (1966). George R. Andersen dies; devoted legal career to rights of workers. January 7.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Dispatcher. (1974). ILWU attorney Gladstein suffers heart attack. August 30: 1.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Dispatcher. (1981). Richard Gladstein, ILWU attorney for 35 years, defended Bridges, Hall. June 5: 6.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Gardner, D. P. (1967). The California oath controversy. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Gladstein, J. (2012). E-mail to John Galliher, June 27.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gladstein, R. (n.d.). Supplement to memorandum of respondent. California District Court.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Goffman, E. (1963). Stigma: Notes on the management of spoiled identity. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Honolulu Star Bulletin. (1949). Fear of communist infiltrators engulfed postwar Hawaii. November 18.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Keen, M. F. (1999). Stalking the sociological imagination: J. Edgar Hoover’s FBI surveillance of American sociologists. Westport: Greenwood Press.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kutler, S. (1978). Interview with Richard and Caroline Gladstein. Bancroft Library. Berkeley: University of California.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kutler, S. I. (1982). The American inquisition: Justice and injustice in the Cold War. New York: Hill and Wang.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Leonard, N. (1950). Analysis of the Internal Security Act of 1950 (McCarran Act). November.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Pontikes, E., Negro, G., & Rao, H. (2010). Stained red: a study of stigma by association to blacklisted artists during the ‘Red Scare’. American Sociological Review, 75, 456–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Raineri, V. M. G. (1991). The red angel: The life and times of Elaine Black Yoneda. New York: International Publishers.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Recorder. (1950). Here are attorneys signing brief in contempt case. February 14.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1934). Attorney for radical gets death threats. July 20.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1949a). Gladstein reported threatened in N.Y. June 28.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1949b). Controversy in Berkeley over speech. November 10.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1949c). Gladstein out as Bridges’ defense attorney. November 25.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1952). Reds’ lawyers go to prison. April 25.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1955a). Gladstein disbarment action delayed. February 1.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1955b). Gladstein wins fight against judge in Hawaii. April 9.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1965). George R. Andersen dies at 65. December 30.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    San Francisco Chronicle. (1969). Answer to General Hershey. May 29.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    San Francisco Examiner. (1934). S.F. drive on communists to continue. July 26.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    San Francisco Examiner. (1941). U.S. arrests Bridges in new ouster case. April 2.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    San Francisco Examiner. (1943). “Citizenship plea refused.” May 7.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    San Francisco Examiner. (1965). Sit-in arrest tapes assailed by defense. April 14.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Schrecker, E.W. (1994). The age of McCarthyism: A brief history with documents. Boston: St. Martin’s Press. http://writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/schrecker-blacklist.html.
  46. 46.
    Selvin, D. F. (1996). A terrible anger: The 1934 waterfront and general strikes in San Francisco. Detroit: Wayne State University Press.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Smith, M. S. (1998). Modern American poetry. About the Smith Act trials. www.english.illinois.edu/maps/poets/g_l/jerome/smithact.htm.
  48. 48.
    State Bar of California. Attorney search. http://members.calbar.ca.gov/search/member.aspx.
  49. 49.
    Tedford, T. L., & Herbeck, D. A. (2009). Freedom of speech in the United States (6th ed.). State College: Strata Publishing.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    United States v. Brown., 381 U.S. 437 (1965).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    U.S. Congress. House of Representatives. Committee on Un-American Activities. (1960). 86th Cong., 2nd Sess., May 13th.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. (n.d.). “Red” suspects demand jury: Parade of 350 arrested in police raids starts before Lazarus. http://www.sfmuseum.org/hist4/maritime16.html.
  53. 53.
    Wiececk, W. W. (2006). The birth of the modern Constitution: The United States Supreme Court, 1941–1953. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  54. 54.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology and SociologyTexas A&M University-KingsvilleKingsvilleUSA
  2. 2.University of MissouriColumbiaUSA

Personalised recommendations