Advertisement

Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 55, Issue 5, pp 359–374 | Cite as

A note on the facticity of animal trials in early modern Britain; or, the curious prosecution of farmer Carter’s dog for murder

  • Piers Beirne
Article

Abstract

For a century or so there has been a lively debate on the meaning of animal trials in early modern and medieval Europe. One unresolved issue in this debate is the geographical and jurisdictional incidence of animal trials, including their facticity in Britain. This essay explores some neglected evidence in this regard, namely, three British animal trials identified in E.P. Evans’ (1906/1987) authoritative text The Criminal Prosecution and Capital Punishment of Animals.

Keywords

Criminal Prosecution Animal Trial British Case Bestiality Real Trial 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. 1.
    Amira, K. (1891). Thierstrafen und thierprocesse. Mittheilungen Instituts für Öestterreichische Geschichtsforschung, 12, 545–605.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Anon. (1860a). Death caused by a game cock, The Observer, October 8, p. 7.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anon. (1860b). Death from the bite of a cat, The Observer, October 8, p. 7.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Beirne, P. (1994). The law is an ass: reading E.P. Evans' The medieval prosecution and capital punishment of animals. Society & Animals, 21(1), 27–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Beirne, P. (2009). Confronting animal abuse: Law, criminology, and human-animal relationships. Lanhan: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Berman, P. S. (1994). Rats, pigs, and statues on trial: The creation of cultural narratives in the prosecution of animals and inanimate objects. New York University Law Review, 69(2), 288.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bower, E. (1653). Dr Lambe revived, or, witchcraft condemned in Anne Bodenham. London: Horton.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bracton. (c.1260/1968). On the laws and customs of England. Edited by G.E. Woodbine. Translated by S.E. Thorne. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Burton, T. G. (1971). The hanging of Mary, a circus elephant. Tennessee Folklore Society, 37(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Cohen, E. (1986). Law, folklore and animal lore. Past and Present, 110, 6–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coke, E. (1648/1817). The third part of the institutes of the laws of England. London: W. Clarke & Sons.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Conway, D. M. (1896). General introduction. In The life of Thomas Paine (Ed. Conway, pp. 1–15). New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Crockett, S. R. (1895). The men of the moss-hags: Being a history of adventure. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Darnton, R. (1985). The great cat massacre and other episodes in French cultural history. New York: Vintage.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Dinzelbacher, P. (2002). Animal trials: a multidisciplinary approach. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 32(3), 405–421.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Enders, J. (2002). Homicidal pigs and the antisemitic imagination. Exemplaria, 14(1), 201–238.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Evans, E. P. (1906/1987). The criminal prosecution and capital punishment of animals. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Finkelstein, J. J. (1981). The ox that gored. Transactions of the American Philosophical Society, 71(part 2).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Forbes, T. R. (1973). London-Coroner’s Inquests for 1590. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 28(4), 376–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forte, A. D. M. (1990). The horse that kills: some thoughts on deodands, escheats and crime in fifteenth-century Scots law. Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgeschiedenis, 58, 95–110.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Frazer, S. J. G. (1923). Folk-Lore in the old testament: Studies in comparative religion, legend, and law. New York: Tudor.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Fudge, E. (2000). Perceiving animals: Humans and beasts in early modern English culture. New York: St. Martin’s.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Girgen, J. (2003). The historical and contemporary prosecution of animals. Animal Law, 9, 97–133.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hawke, D. F. (1974). Paine. New York: Harper & Row.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Holden, A. (1990). William Shakespeare: The man behind the genius. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Holsinger, B. (2009). Of pigs and parchment: medieval studies and the coming of the animal. PMLA (Publications of the Modern Language Association), 124(2), 616–623.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hone, W. (1827). Every-day book and table-book; or, everlasting calendar of popular amusements. Two volumes. Hunt and Clarke: London.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hyde, W. W. (1916). The prosecution and punishment of animals and lifeless things in the middle ages and modern times. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 64(7), 696–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Ives, G. (1914). (1970). A history of penal methods: Criminals, witches, lunatics. Montclair, N.J.: Patterson Smith.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Jackson, C. (2003). Restoration Scotland, 1660–1690: Royalist politics, religion and ideas. Woodbridge: Boydell.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Jones, W. (1880). Credulities past and present. London: Chatto and Windus.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Keane, J. (1995). Tom Paine: A political life. Boston: Little, Brown.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Lauder, Sir J. (1671). (1900). Journals of Sir John Lauder Lord Fountainhall, 1665–1676. Publications of the Scottish Historical Society, vol.36.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Long, E. (1771). The trial of farmer Carter's dog Porter, for murder. Taken down verbatim et literatim in short-hand, and now published by Authority, from the corrected manuscript of counsellor Clear-point, barrister at law. London: Lowndes.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Louandre, C. (1854). L’Épopée des animaux. Revue des deux mondes, 25, 331–336.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Mather, C. (1662/1820). Magnalia christi americana: Cotton Mather. 2 vols. New Haven: Silas Andrus.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Paine, T. (1775 [anon.]/1896). Farmer Short’s dog Porter. In The writings of Thomas Paine (pp.478–481). Edited by D.M. Conway. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Pertile, A. (1886). Gli animali in giudizio. In Atti del Reale Istituto Veneto (book 4, series 6, pp.135–153). Venice: Press of the Institute of Science, Letters and Arts.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Rickman, T. C. (1819). Life of Thomas Paine. London: Rickman.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rule, J. G. (1975). Wrecking and coastal plunder. In D. Hay, P. Linebaugh, J. G. Rule, E. P. Thompson and C. Winslow (Eds.), Albion’s fatal tree: Crime and society in eighteenth-century England (pp. 167–188). New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Salmond, A. (2003). The trial of the cannibal dog. The remarkable story of Captain Cook’s encounters in the South Seas. New Haven: Yale University Press.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Shakespeare, W. (1598/2000). The merchant of Venice. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Sloet, L. A. J. W. (1887). De dieren in het Germaansche volksgeloof en volksgebruik. Amsterdam: Martinus Nijhof.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Tester, K. (1991). Animals & society: The humanity of animal rights. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Watson, K. D. (2006). Medical and chemical expertise in English trials for criminal poisoning, 1750–1914. Medical History, 50, 373–390.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Westermarck, E. (1906–1908). The origin and development of the moral ideas. 2 vols. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Williamson, A. (1973). Thomas Paine: His life, work and times. London: Allen and Unwin.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CriminologyUniversity of Southern MainePortlandUSA

Personalised recommendations