Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 55, Issue 2–3, pp 61–86 | Cite as

Police governance and accountability: overview of current issues

Article

References

  1. 1.
    Aden, H. (2001). Convergence of policing policies and transnational policing in Europe. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 9, 99–112.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    An Garda Síochána. (2009). Training and development review group report. Templemore: An Garda Síochána.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson, J. (1985). Human rights and the police. Police Studies: International Review of Police Development, 8, 67.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson, M. (1989). Policing the world: Interpol and the politics of police cooperation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Anderson, M., & Apap, J. (Eds.). (2002). Police and justice cooperation and the New European borders. London: Kluwer Law International.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Anderson, M., & den Boer, M. (1996). Policing the European union: Theory, law and practice. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Andreas, P. (2001). Border games: Policing the US-Mexico Divide. Cornell.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Ayling, J., Grabosky, P., & Shearing, C. (2009). Lengthening the arm of the law: Enhancing police resources in the twenty-first century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bayley, D. H. (1983). Accountability and control of the police: Lessons from Britain. In T. Bennett (Ed.), The future of policing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bayley, D. H. (2006). Changing the guard: Developing democratic policing abroad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bayley, D. H. (2001). Democratising the police abroad: What to do and how to do it. Washington DC: US Dept of Justice.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bayley, D. H. (1996). Police for the future. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Bayley, D. H., & Shearing, C. (2003). The future of policing. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Policing: Key readings, ch.40. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beare, M., & Murray, T. (Eds.). (2007). Police and government relations: Who’s calling the shots? Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Beetham, D. (1991). The legitimation of power. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Beggs, J., & Davies, H. (2009). Police misconduct: Complaints and public regulation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bell, J. (Ed.). (2006). Police and policing law. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Beral, H., & Sisk, M. (1964). The administration of complaints by civilians against the police. Harvard Law Review, 77, 499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bigo, D. (2008). Global (in)Security: The field and the Ban-opticon. In D. Bigo & A. Tsoukala (Eds.), Terror, insecurity and liberty: Illiberal practices in liberal regimes (pp. 10–48). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bigo, D. (2006). Internal and external aspects of security. European Security, 15, 385–404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bittner, E. (1970). The functions of the police in modern society. Maryland: National Institute of Mental Health.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Blackburn, S., & Lister, S. (2005). Plural policing: The mixed economy of visible patrols in England and Wales. Oxford: Polity.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Block, I. (2008). Combatting organised crime in Europe: practicalities in police cooperation. Policing, 74–81.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Blom-Cooper, L. (2010). What went wrong on bloody sunday: a critique of the saville inquiry. Public Law, 61–78.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Booth, K., & Wheeler, N. J. (2007). The security dilemma: Fear, cooperation, and trust in world politics. Hampshire: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Bowling, B., & Philips, C. (2003). Policing ethnic minority communities. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Bowling, B., & Philips, C. (2002). Racism, crime and justice. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bowling, B., Philips, C., Campbell, A., & Docking, M. (2004). Policing and human rights: Eliminating discrimination, xenophobia, intolerance and abuse of power from police work. New York: UN Research Institute for Social Development.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Brady, C. (1974). Guardians of the peace. Dublin: Mercier.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brown, A. (1998). Police governance in England and Wales. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bullock, K., & Tilley, N. (Eds.). (2003). Crime reduction and problem oriented policing. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bunyan, T. (1977). The political police in Britain. London: Quartet Books.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Burton, F., & Carlen, P. (1979). Official discourse: On discourse analysis, government publications, ideology and the state. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Butler, A. (1984). Police management. London: Gower.Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Button, M. (2007). Security officers and policing: Powers, culture and control in the governance of private space. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Buzan, B. (1991). People, states and fear: An agenda for international security studies in the post-cold war era (2nd ed.). Hemel Hempstead: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Buzan, B., & Wæver, O. (2003). Regions and powers: The structure of international security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Buzan, B., Wæver, O., & de Wilde, J. (1998). Security: A new framework for analysis. New York: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Calabresi, G. (2003). The exclusionary rule. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Practice, 26.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Cameron, I. (1985). Commission of inquiry concerning certain activities of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police. Second report: “Freedom and security under the law”. Modern Law Review, 48, 201–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cashmore, E., & McLaughlin, E. (1991). Out of order? Policing black people. London: Routlege.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Celador, G. C. (2005). Police reform: peacebuilding through democratic policing? International Peacekeeping, 12, 364–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chan, J. (1977). Changing police culture: Policing in a multi-cultural society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chan, J. (1996). Changing police culture. British Journal of Criminology, 36, 109–134.Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Chan, J. Governing police practice: limits of the new accountability. British Journal of Sociology, 50, 251.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Chapman, B. (1970). Police state. London: Pall Mall.Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Clayton, R., & Tomlinson, H. (2004). Civil actions against the police (3rd ed.). London: Thomson Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Coll, C., & Barnett, M. (1999). Looking for a few good cops: peacekeeping, peacebuilding and CIVPOL. International Peacekeeping, 6, 43–68.Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Conway, V. (2010). The blue wall of silence: The morris tribunal and police accountability in Ireland. Dublin: Irish Academic.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Conway, V. (2009). A sheep in wolf’s clothing? Evaluating the impact of the Garda Síochána Ombudsman Commission. Irish Jurist, 43, 109–130.Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Conway, V., & Mulqueen, M. (2009). The 2009 anti-gangland package: Ireland’s new security blanket? Irish Criminal Law Journal, 19, 106.Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Cope, N. (2004). Intelligence led policing or policing led intelligence. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Council of Europe. (2003). Cross-border cooperation in the combatting of organised crime. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Council of Europe. (2002). The European code of police ethics: Recommendation rec(2001) and explanatory memorandum. Strasbourg: Council of Europe.Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Crank, J. P. (1998). Understanding police culture. Connecticut: Anderson Publishing.Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Crawford, A. (2008). Plural policing in the UK: Policing beyond the police. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.7 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Crawford, A., & Lister, S. (2006). Additional security patrols in residential areas: notes from the marketplace. Policing and Society, 16, 164–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Crawshaw, R., Cullen, S., & Williamson, T. (2007). Human rights and policing (2nd ed.). Leiden: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Crawshaw, R., Devlin, B., & Willliamson, T. (2007). Human rights and policing: Standards for good behaviour and a strategy for change (2nd ed.). The Hague: Kluwer Law International.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Crawshaw, R., & Holmstrom, L. (Eds.). (2008). Essential texts on human rights for the police: A compilation of international instruments. Martinus Nijhoff: Leiden.Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cunningham, W., & Tyler, T. (1985). Private security and police in America: The Hallcrest report. University of North Carolina: Chancellor Press.Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Daly, Y. (2009). Unconstitutionally obtained evidence in Ireland: protectionism, deterrence and the winds of change. Irish Criminal Law Journal, 19(2), 40.Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Davis, R., et al. (2003). The public accountability of private police: lessons from New York, Johannesburg and Mexico City. Policing and Society, 13, 197–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Day, P., & Klein, R. (1987). Accountabilities: Five public services. London: Tavistock.Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    De Waard, J. (1999). The private security industry in international perspective. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7, 143–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Deflem, M. (2002). Policing world society: Historical foundations of international police cooperation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Del Carmen, R. (1981). An overview of civil and criminal liability of police officers and departments. American Journal of Criminal Law, 33.Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Den Boer, M. (2002). Towards an accountability regime for an emerging European police governance. Policing and Society, 12, 275–289.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dickie, J. (1988). The road to Fitzgerald and beyond. Queensland: University of Queensland Press.Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dixon, D. (1997). Law and policing. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Dixon, D. (2005). The legal regulation of policing. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Policing: Key readings, ch.37. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Dixon, D. (2003). Police governance and official inquiries. In G. Gilligan & J. Pratt (Eds.), Crime, truth and justice: Official inquiry, discourse and knowledge. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Dupont, B. (2003). The new face of police governance in Australia. Journal of Australian Studies, 27, 15–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Edwards, A. (2005). Governance. In E. McLaughlin & J. Muncie (Eds.), The Sage dictionary of criminology (2nd ed.). London: Sage.Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Edwards, C. (2005). Changing policing theories for 21st century societies (2nd ed.). Sydney: The Federation.Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Ellison, G. (2007). A blueprint for democratic policing anywhere in the world? Police Quarterly, 10, 243–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Elson, S., & Rosset, A. (1967). Protections for the suspect under Miranda v. Arizona. Columbia Law Review, 67, 645.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Ericson, R. V., & Haggerty, K. (1997). Policing the risk society. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    Ferguson, C. (2004). Police reform, peacekeeping and SSR: the need for closer synthesis. Journal of Security Sector Management, 2.Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Foote, C. (1954). Tort remedies for police violations of individual rights. Minnesota Law Review, 39, 493–516.Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Garcia, V. (2005). Constructing the ‘other’ within police culture: an analysis of a deviant unit within the police organisation. Police Practice and Research, 6, 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Gearson, J. (2002). The nature of modern terrorism. In L. Freedman (Ed.), Superterrorism: Policy responses (pp. 7–24). London: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gilligan, G. (2002). Royal commissions of inquiry. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 35, 289–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Golding, B., & Savage, S. (2008). Leadership and performance management. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.27 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Goldsmith, A. (Ed.). (1991). Complaints against the police: The trend to external review. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Goldsmith, A. (1995). Necessary but not sufficient: The role of public complaints procedures in police accountability. In P. Stenning (Ed.), Accountability for criminal justice: Selected essays (p. 110). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Goldsmith, A. (1990). Taking police culture seriously: police discretion and limits of law. Policing and Society, 91–114.Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Goldsmith, A., & Dineen, S. (2007). Transnational police building: critical lessons from Timor-Leste and Solomon Islands. Third World Quarterly, 28, 1091–1109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Goldsmith, A., & Lewis, C. (Eds.). (2000). Civilian oversight of policing: Governance, democracy and human rights. Portland: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Goldsmith, A., & Sheptycki, J. (2007). Crafting transnational policing: Police capacity-building and global policing reform. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Goldstein, H. (1990). Problem oriented policing. New York: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Hadden, T. (Ed.). (2009). A responsibility to assist: Human rights policy and practice in European union crisis management operations. Oxford: Hart.Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Hadfield, B. (1999). R v Lord Saville of Newdigate, ex parte Anonymous Soldiers: What is the purpose of a tribunal of inquiry? Public Law, 663–681.Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hale, C., Heaton, R., & Uglow, S. (2005). Uniform styles? Aspects of police centralisation in England and Wales. Policing and Society, 15, 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Hamilton, C. (2007). The presumption of innocence in Irish criminal law. Dublin: Irish Academic.Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Hamilton, J., Radford, K., & Jarman, N. (2003). Policing, accountability and young people. Belfast: Institute for Conflict Research.Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hansen, A. (2004). Security and defence: The EU police mission in Bosnia-Herzogovina. In W. Carlsneas, H. Sjursen, & B. White (Eds.), Contemporary European foreign policy. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Harfield, C. SOCA: a paradigm shift in British policing. British Journal of Criminology, 46, 743–761.Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Harfield, C., Grieve, T., MacVean, A., & Phillips, D. (2008). Handbook of intelligence policing: Consilience, crime control and community safety. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hayes, M. (1997). A police Ombudsman for Northern Ireland? A review of the police complaints system in Northern Ireland. Belfast: Northern Ireland Office.Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hegarty, A. (2003). The government of memory: public inquiries and the limits of justice in Northern Ireland. Fordham International Law Journal, 26, 1148.Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Hinton, M., & Newburn, T. (2009). Policing developing democracies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Holdaway, S. (2003). Police race relations in England and Wales: theory, policy and practice. Police & Society, 7, 49–75.Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Office, H. (2004). Managing police performance: A practical guide to performance management (p. 2004). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Hudson, J. (1973). Police review boards and police accountability. Law and Contemporary Problems, 36, 515–538.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Inbau, F. (1999). Law and police practice: restrictions in the law of interrogation and confessions. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 89.Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Independent Commission on Policing in Northern Ireland. (1999). A new beginning: Policing in Northern Ireland: Report of the independent commission on policing for Northern Ireland (patten report). London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Inglis, T. (2003). Truth, power and lies: Irish society and the case of the Kerry Babies. Dublin: UCD Press.Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Innes, M., & Thiel, D. (2008). Policing terror. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.21 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jacobi, J. (2000). Prosecuting police misconduct. Wisconsin Law Review, 4, 789–855.Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Jefferson, T., & Grimshaw, R. (1984). Controlling the constable. London: Cobden Trust.Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Johnston, L. (2000). Policing Britain: Risk, security and governance. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Johnston, L. (1999). Private policing in context. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7, 175–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Johnston, L. (1992). The rebirth of private policing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Johnston, L., & Shearing, C. (2003). Governing security. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Johnston, T. (1966). The judges’ rules and police interrogation in England today. Police Science, 57.Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Jones, T. (2008). The accountability of policing. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.26 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Jones, T. (2003). The governance and accountability of the police. In T. Newburn (Ed.), The handbook of policing. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Jones, T., & Newburn, T. (1997). Policing after the act: Police governance after the police and Magistrates’ Courts Act 1994. London: Policy Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Jones, T., & Newburn, T. (Eds.). (2006). Plural policing: A comparative perspective. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Jones, T., & Newburn, T. (1998). Private security and public policing. Oxford: Clarendon.Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Kaci, J. (1982). Confessions: a comparison of exclusion under Miranda in the US and the Judges’ Rules in England. American Journal of Criminal Law, 10, 87–112.Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Kamisar, Y. (2003). In defense of the search and seizure exclusionary rule. Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy, 26, 119.Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Keane, A. (2007). The modern law of evidence (7th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Kempa, M. (2007). Tracing the diffusion of police governance models for the British Isles and back again: some directions for democratic reform in troubled times. Police Practice and Research, 8, 127–123.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Kempa, M., & Johnston, L. (2005). Challenges and prospects for the development of inclusive plural policing in Britain: overcoming political and conceptual obstacles. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 38, 181–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Kempa, M., et al. (1999). Reflections on the evolving concept of private security. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 7, 197–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Kerstetter, W. A. (1985). Who disciplines the police? Who should? In W. Geller (Ed.), Police leadership in America: Crisis and opportunity. New York: Praeger.Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Kleinig, J. (1996). The ethics of policing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    The Knapp Commission Report on Police Corruption. (1973). New York: Braziller.Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Kratcoski, P. C., & Das, D. K. (Eds.). (2007). Police education and training in a global society. Maryland: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Leigh, L. H. (1975). Police powers in England and Wales. London: Butterworths.Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Levi, M., & Maguire, M. (1992). Crime and cross border policing in Europe. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Lewis, C. (1999). Complaints against the police: The politics of reform. Sydney: Hawkins.Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lindell, G. (2000). Tribunals of inquiry and royal commissions. Sydney: Federation.Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Lister, S. (2006). Painting the town blue: the pluralisation of policing. Criminal Justice Matters, 63, 22–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Loader, I. (2002). Governing European policing: some problems and prospects. Policing and Society, 12, 291–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Loader, I. (2000). Plural policing and democratic governance. Social and Legal Studies, 9, 323–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Loader, I. (2002). Policing, securitisation and democratisation in Europe. Criminology and Criminal Justice, 2, 125–153.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Loader, I., & Walker, N. (2007). Civilising security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Loftus, B. (2009). Police culture in a changing world. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Loveday, B. (2000). New directions in accountability. In F. Leishman et al. (Eds.), Core issues in policing (pp. 213–231). Harlow: Longman.Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Loveday, B. (1988). Police complaints in the USA. Policing, 4(3), 172–193.Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Lustgarten, L. (1986). The governance of police. London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Lutterbeck, D. (2004). Between police and military: the new security agenda and the rise of gendarmeries. Cooperation and Conflict, 39, 45–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Lutterbeck, D. (2005). Blurring the dividing line: the convergence of internal and external security in western Europe. European Security, 14, 231–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Macpherson, W. (1999). The Stephen Lawrence inquiry. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Maguire, M., & Corbett, C. (1991). A study of the police complaints system. London: PACE.Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Manning, P. (1980). Narcs game: Organisational and informational limits on drug law enforcement. Massachusetts: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Manning, P. (2008). Technology of policing: Crime mapping, information technology and the rationality of crime control. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Marenin, O. (2005). Restoring policing systems. In Conflict torn Nations: Process, problems and prospects. Geneva: Geneva Centre for Democratic Control of Armed Forces.Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Mark, R. (1979). In the office of constable. London: Fontana.Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mark, R. (1977). Policing a perplexed society. London: Allen & Unwin.Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Marshall, G. (1978). Police accountability revisited. In D. Butler & A. H. Halsey (Eds.), Policy and politics: Essays in honour of Norman Chester. London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Marshall, G. (1965). Police and government. London: Methuen.Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Mawby, R. I. (2008). Models of policing. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Mendes, E., Zuckerberg, J., Lecorre, S., Gabriel, A., & Clark, J. (1999). Democratic policing and accountability: Global perspectives. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    McLagan, G. (2006). Bent Coppers: The inside story of Scotland Yard’s battle against police corruption. London: Orion.Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    McLaughlin, E. (2007). The new policing. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    McLaughlin, E., & Johansen, A. (2002). A force for change? The prospects of applying restorative justice to citizen complaints against the police in England and Wales. British Journal of Criminology, 42, 635–653.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Merlinger, M., & Ostrauskite, R. (2005). Power/Knowledge in international peacebuilding: the case of the EU mission in Bosnia. Alternatives: Global, Local, Political, 30, 297–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Miller, S. (Ed.). (2006). Police ethics. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Morgan, R. (1986). Police consultative groups: the implications for the Governance of the Police. Political Quarterly, 57.Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Mulcahy, A. (2006). Policing Northern Ireland: Conflict, legitimacy and reform. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Mulqueen, M. (2009). Securing the State with soldier spies: evaluating the risks of using military personnel to gather surveillance evaluating the risks of using military personnel to gather surveillance evidence in Ireland. Irish Studies in International Affairs, 20, 121–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Newburn, T. (1999). Understanding and preventing police corruption: Lessons from the literature. London: Home Office Policing and Reducing Crime Unit.Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Newburn, T., & Jones, T. (1996). Police accountability. In W. Saulsbury, J. Mott, & T. Newburn (Eds.), Themes in contemporary policing. London: Policy Studies Institute.Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Newham, G. (2000). Transformation and the Internal Disciplinary System of the South African Police Force. Centre for the Study of Violence and Reconciliation. Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  169. 169.
    Neyroud, P. (2008). Policing and ethics. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.25 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Neyroud, P. (2001). Public participation in policing. London: Institute for Public Policy Research.Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Neyroud, P., & Beckley, A. (2001). Policing, ethics and human rights. Collumpton: Willan.Google Scholar
  172. 172.
    Nogala, D. (2001). Policing across a dimorphous border: challenge and innovation at the French-German border. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 9, 130–143.Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Occhipinti, J. D. (2003). The politics of European union police cooperation: Toward a European FBI? Boulder: Lynne Rienner.Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Optican, S., & Sankoff, D. (2003). The new exclusionary rule: a preliminary assessment of R v Shaheed. New Zealand Law Review, 1–44.Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Paoline, E. A. (2003). Taking stock: towards a richer understanding of police culture. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 199–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Paulson, M. (1961). The exclusionary rule and misconduct by the police. The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology and Police Science, 52, 255–265.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Pickering, S. (2004). Border terror: policing forced migration and terrorism. Global Change, Peace and Security, 14, 211–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Plachta, M. (2005). Joint investigation teams: a new form of international cooperation. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 13, 184–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Prenzler, T. (2008). Is there a police culture? Australian Journal of Public Administration, 56(4), 47–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Prenzler, T., & Ransey, J. (Eds.). (2002). Police reform: Building integrity. Sydney: Hawkins.Google Scholar
  181. 181.
    Prenzler, T., & Sarre, R. (1998). Regulating private policing in Australia. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, 98, 1–6.Google Scholar
  182. 182.
    Punch, M. (2009). Police corruption: Deviance, accountability and reform in policing. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Punch, M. (2000). Police corruption and its prevention. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 8, 301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Reiner, R. (1992). Policing a post-modern society. Modern Law Review, 55, 761–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Reiner, R. (2010). The politics of the police (4th ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  186. 186.
    Reith, C. (1952). The blind eye of history. London: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar
  187. 187.
    Report of the Commission of Investigation (Dean Lyons Case). (2006). Dublin: Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  188. 188.
    Report of the Inquiry into Possible Illegal Activities and Associated Police Misconduct (The Fitzgerald Report). (1989). Government of Queensland.Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Report of the Royal Commission on the Police. (1962). London: HMSO, Cmnd.1728.Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Report of the Royal Commission on Tribunals of Inquiry (The Salmond Commission). London: HMSO, Cmnd.3121.Google Scholar
  191. 191.
    Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into the Facts and Circumstances Surrounding the Fatal Shooting of John Carthy at Abbeylara, Co. Longford on 20th April, 2000. (2006). Dublin: Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  192. 192.
    Report of the Tribunal of Inquiry into “The Kerry Babies Case”. (1985). Dublin: Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  193. 193.
    Reports of the Tribunal of Inquiry Set up Pursuant to the Tribunals of Inquiry (Evidence) Acts 1921–2002 into Certain Gardaí in the Donegal Division. (2004–2008). Dunlin: Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  194. 194.
    Reuss-Ianni, E. (1993). Two cultures of policing: Street cops and management cops. New Jersey: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Rijken, C. (2006). Joint Investigation teams: principles, practice, and problems: lessons learnt from the first efforts to establish a JIT. Utrecht Law Review, 2, 99–118.Google Scholar
  196. 196.
    Rijken, C., & Vermuelen, G. (2006). Joint investigation teams in the European union: From theory to practice. The Hague: TMC Asser.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197.
    Roach, K. (1995). Canadian public inquiries and accountability. In P. Stenning (Ed.), Accountability for criminal justice: Selected essays (p. 268). Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Rowe, M. (2009). Notes on a scandal: the official enquiry into deviance and corruption in the New Zealand police. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 42, 123–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Rowe, M. (Ed.). (2007). Policing beyond Macpherson: Issues in policing, race and society. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Sampson, F., & de Silva, N. (2001). Police conduct, complaints and efficiency. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  201. 201.
    Sanders, A., Young, R., & Young, R. (2008). Police powers. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.12 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Savage, S. (2007). Police reform: Forces for change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  203. 203.
    Savage, S., Charman, S., & Cope, S. (1996). Police governance, the association of chief police officers and constitutional; change. Public Policy and Administration, 11, 92–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Scarman, B. (1981). Report on the disturbances in Brixton 10th to 13th April 1981. London: HMSO.Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Schalken, T., & Pronk, M. (2002). On joint investigation teams, Europol and the supervision of their joint actions. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 10, 70–82.Google Scholar
  206. 206.
    Scraton, P. (2004). From deceit to disclosure: The politics of official inquiries in the United Kingdom. In G. Gilligan & J. Pratt (Eds.), Crime, truth and justice. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  207. 207.
    Scraton, P. (1985). The police state we are in. London: Pluto.Google Scholar
  208. 208.
    Serafino, N. (2007). Policing in peacekeeping and related stability operations: Problems and proposed solutions. In K. Gerbick (Ed.), Peacekeeping and stability issues. New York: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  209. 209.
    Shearing, C., & Stenning, P. (1981). Modern private security: Its growth and implications. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: An annual review of research (pp. 193–245). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  210. 210.
    Shearing, C., & Stenning, P. (1985). Private security: implications for social control. Social Problems, 3, 493–506.Google Scholar
  211. 211.
    Sheptycki, J. (2002). Accountability across the policing field: towards a general cartography of accountability for post-modern policing. Policing and Society, 12, 323–338.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    Sheptycki, J. (1998). The global cops cometh; reflections on transnationalisation, knowledge work and police subculture. British Journal of Sociology, 49, 57–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Sheptycki, J. (2002). In search of transnational policing: A sociology of global policing. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Sheptycki, J. (Ed.). (2000). Issues in transnational policing. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Sheptycki, J. (2001). Patrolling the New European (In)Security field; organisational dilemmas and operational solutions for policing the internal borders of Europe. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 9, 144.Google Scholar
  216. 216.
    Sheptycki, J. (1998). Police cooperation in the english channel region 1968–1996. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 6, 216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217.
    Sheptycki, J. (2000). Policing and human rights: an introduction. Policing and Society, 10, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218.
    Sklansky, D. (2008). Democracy and the police. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  219. 219.
    Sklansky, D. A. (2007–08). Is the exclusionary rule obselete? Ohio State Journal of Criminal Law, 5, 567.Google Scholar
  220. 220.
    Sklansky, D. (2006). Private police and democracy. American Criminal Law Review, 43, 89–106.Google Scholar
  221. 221.
    Skolnick, J., & Fyffe, J. (2005). The beating of Rodney King. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Policing: Key readings, ch.33. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  222. 222.
    Smith, G. (2003). Actions for damages against the police and attitudes of claimants. Policing and Society, 13(4), 413–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223.
    Smith, G. (2006). A most enduring problem: police complaints reforms in England and Wales. Journal of Social Policy, 35.Google Scholar
  224. 224.
    Smith, G. (2001). Police complaints and criminal prosecutions. Modern Law Review, 64, 372–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225.
    Smith, G. (2004). Rethinking police complaints. British Journal of Criminology, 44, 15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226.
    Spitzer, S., & Skull, A. (1977). Privatization and capitalist development: the case of the private police. Social Problems, 25, 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227.
    Stenning, P. (Ed.). (1995). Accountability for criminal justice: Selected essays. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  228. 228.
    Stenning, P. (2009). Governance and accountability in a plural policing environment: the story so far. Policing, 22–33.Google Scholar
  229. 229.
    Stenning, P. (2007). The idea of the political ‘independence’ of the police: International interpretations and experiences. In M. Beare & T. Murray (Eds.), Police & government relations: Who’s calling the shots? Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  230. 230.
    Stenning, P. (1981). Legal status of the police. Ottawa: Law Commission of Canada.Google Scholar
  231. 231.
    Stenning, P. (2000). Powers and accountability of private police. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 8, 325–352.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  232. 232.
    Tilley, N. (2008). Modern approaches to policing: Community, problem-oriented and intelligence led. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.15 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  233. 233.
    Tobias, J. (1979). Crime and police in England 1700–1900. New York: St Martins.Google Scholar
  234. 234.
    Transnational Institute in association with Statewatch. (2009). NeoConOpticon: The EU Security-Industrial Complex. Online, available at http://www.statewatch.org/analyses/neoconopticon-report.pdf.
  235. 235.
    Uchida, C., & Bynum, T. (1991). Search warrants, motions to suppress and ‘lost causes’: the effects of the exclusionary rule in seven jurisdictions. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 1034–1066.Google Scholar
  236. 236.
    Uglow, S. (1988). Policing liberal society. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  237. 237.
    Uldriks, N., & Van Reenen, P. (2003). Policing post-communist societies: Police-public violence, democratic policing and human rights. Antwerp: Intersentia.Google Scholar
  238. 238.
    Van Steden, R. (2007). Privatising policing: Describing and explaining the growth of private security. Amsterdam: BJu Legal Publishers.Google Scholar
  239. 239.
    Verma, A. (2000). Politicisation of the police in India: where lies the blame? Indian Police Journal, 47, 9–37.Google Scholar
  240. 240.
    Vickers, M., & Kouzmin, A. (2001). New managerialism and Australian police organisations. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 14, 7–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  241. 241.
    Waddington, P. A. J. (1988). Arming an unarmed police: Policy and practice in the metropolitan police. London: The Police Foundation.Google Scholar
  242. 242.
    Waddington, P. A. J. (1999). Police (canteen) sub-culture: an appreciation. British Journal of Criminology, 39, 287–309.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 243.
    Waddington, P. A. J. (1999). Policing citizens: Authority and rights. London: UCL Press.Google Scholar
  244. 244.
    Waddington, P. A. J. (1991). The strong arm of the law: Armed and public order policing. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  245. 245.
    Waddington, P. A. J., & Wright, M. (2008). Police use of force, firearms and riot control. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.18 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  246. 246.
    Wakefield, A. (2003). Selling security. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  247. 247.
    Walker, N. (2008). The pattern of transnational policing. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.7 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  248. 248.
    Walker, N. (2000). Policing in a changing constitutional order. London: Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  249. 249.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (2000). Bloody Sunday and the rule of law in Northern Ireland. London: Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  250. 250.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (2007). The criminal justice act 2006: a crushing defeat for due process values? Judicial Studies Institute Journal, 7, 44–59.Google Scholar
  251. 251.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (2009). Human rights and policing in Ireland: Law, policy and practice. Dublin: Clarus.Google Scholar
  252. 252.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (1998). The Irish police: A legal and constitutional perspective. Dublin: Round Hall Sweet & Maxwell.Google Scholar
  253. 253.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (2004). The proposed garda complaints procedure: a critique. Irish Criminal Law Journal, 14, 2–26.Google Scholar
  254. 254.
    Walsh, D. P. J. (2009). Twenty years of handling police complaints in Ireland: a critical assessment of the supervisory board model. Legal Studies, 39, 305–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255.
    Waters, I. (2000). Quality and performance monitoring. In F. Leishman, B. Loveday, & S. Savage (Eds.), Core issues in policing (2nd ed.). Harlow: Pearson.Google Scholar
  256. 256.
    Waters, I., & Brown, K. (2000). Police complaints and the complainants experience. British Journal of Criminology, 40, 1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257.
    West, P. (1998). Investigation of complaints against the police: summary report of a national survey. American Journal of Police, 7, 101.Google Scholar
  258. 258.
    Westmarland, L. (2001). Gender and policing: Sex, power and police culture. Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  259. 259.
    Westmarland, L. Police cultures. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.11, (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.Google Scholar
  260. 260.
    Westmarland, L. (2005). Police ethics and integrity: breaking the blue code of silence. Policing and Society, 15, 145–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261.
    Williams, R. (2008). Policing and forensic science. In T. Newburn (Ed.), Handbook of policing, ch.28 (2nd ed.). Cullompton: Willan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262.
    Zedner, L. (2006). Policing before and after the police. British Journal of Criminology, 46, 78–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LimerickLimerickIreland
  2. 2.Queen’s University of BelfastBelfastNorthern Ireland

Personalised recommendations