Crime, Law and Social Change

, Volume 49, Issue 4, pp 303–314 | Cite as

Race, masculinity, and boot camp failure

  • Amber L. Beckley


Black men, especially those in the lower-class are stereotyped as hypermasculine. Such stereotypes may affect placement in criminal justice programs as well as whether offenders successfully complete programming given placement. This article considers whether the intersection of class and race affect boot camp failure. Using data from MacKenzie’s evaluation of correctional boot camps, results show that neither race, nor the interaction of race with indicators of orientation towards decent or street behavior has any effect on dropping out of boot camp. What is significant in predicting boot camp completion is the offender’s belief prior to beginning the program that he is “tough enough” to handle the institution. However, this result is opposite of expected for black men. The implications of this result and future directions are considered.


Black Male Corporal Punishment Gang Member Boot Camp Criminal Justice Program 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



I would like to thank Sally Simpson, Rachel Philofsky, Ráchael Wyckoff, Michael Rocque, and Laura Wyckoff for their comments and suggestions throughout the process of developing this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminology and Criminal JusticeUniversity of MarylandCollege ParkUSA

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