Advertisement

Illicit Waste Trafficking and Loopholes in the European and Italian Legislation

  • Margaux MorgantiEmail author
  • Serena Favarin
  • Daniela Andreatta
Article

Abstract

Evidence shows that waste crimes, principally trafficking, are facilitated by unclear regulatory frameworks. Indeed, lax legislation can unintentionally generate crime opportunities. The aim of this study is to combine criminological and legal knowledge to identify loopholes in the waste regulatory frameworks of the European Union and Italian government. A crime proofing analysis was conducted to identify vulnerabilities in the selected waste legislation. Results indicate the existence of three macrocategories of loopholes: the legal framework, the supply chain, and the justice response system. Policy implications involve the necessity to simplify the language in waste legislation, to create effective measures via which to improve the traceability of waste, and to provide law enforcement authorities with adequate training and technological resources to perform inspection activities. Given the transnational nature of illicit waste trafficking, international cooperation is integral for fighting this crime type.

Keywords

Crime proofing EU waste regulation Italian environmental code Illegal waste management Waste crimes 

Notes

References

  1. Baird, J., Curry, R., & Cruz, P. (2014). An overview of waste crime, its characteristics, and the vulnerability of the EU waste sector. Waste Management and Research, 32(2), 97–105.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0734242X13517161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bernard, S. (2011). Transboundary movement of waste: second-hand market and illegal shipments. CIRANO - Scientific Publications 2011s-77. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228176407TransboundaryMovementofWasteSecond-HandMarketsandIllegalShipments. Accessed 14 Mar 2018
  3. Bisschop, L. (2012). Is it all going to waste? Illegal transports of e-waste in a European trade hub. Crime, Law and Social Change, 58(3), 221–249.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-012-9383-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bisschop, L. (2014). How e-Waste challenges environmental governance. International Journal for Crime, Justice and Social Democracy, 3(2).  https://doi.org/10.5204/ijcjsd.v3i2.178.
  5. Calderoni, F., Maggioni, M., Martocchia, S., & Savona, E. U. (2006). A study on crime proofing - evaluation of crime risk implication of the European Commission’s Proposals Covering a Range of Policy Areas. Transcrime.Google Scholar
  6. Calderoni, F., Savona, E. U., & Solmi, S. (2012). Crime proofing the policy options for the revision of the tobacco products directive. Proofing the policy options under consideration for the revision of EU directive 2001/37/EC against the risk of unintended criminal opportunities. Trento: Transcrime.Google Scholar
  7. Caneppele, Stefano. (2017). Crime proofing of legislation in practice: The case of the 2014 EU Tobacco Products Directive. In Crime Prevention in the 21st Century, 275–92. Springer.Google Scholar
  8. Caneppele, S., Savona, E. U., & Aziani, A. (2013). Crime Proofing of the New Tobacco Products Directive. Proofing the EU Commission Proposal for a Revised Tobacco Products Directive against the Risks of Unintended Criminal Opportunities. Trento: Transcrime - Università degli Studi di Trento. http://www.transcrime.it/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Crime-Proofing-of-the-NEW-TPD6.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2017
  9. Cassinelli, N, & Del Duro, R. (2007). La normativa sulla gestione integrata dei rifiuti in Italia. In La raccolta differenziata dei rifiuti e il riciclo delle materie secondarie, 211. Milan: FrancoAngeli s.r.l.Google Scholar
  10. Cassotta, S. (2012). Extended producer responsibility in waste regulations in a multilevel global approach: nanotechnology as a case study. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 21(5), 198–219.Google Scholar
  11. Cerulli Irelli, V., & di San Luca, G. C. (2011a). La disciplina giuridica dei rifiuti in Italia. Volume I: Analisi della disciplina nazionale. Vol. I. 2 vols. Napoli: Editoriale Scientifica.Google Scholar
  12. Cerulli Irelli, V., & di San Luca, G. C. (2011b). La disciplina giuridica dei rifiuti in Italia. Volume II: Ricognizione ragionata della legislazione regionale. Vol. II. 2 vols. Editoriale Scientifica.Google Scholar
  13. Cesi, B., D’Amato, A., & Zoli, M. (2017). Corruption in environmental policy: THE case of waste. Economia Politica.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s40888-017-0087-x.
  14. Commissione parlamentare inchiesta rifiuti (2014). ‘Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sulle attività illecite connesse al ciclo dei rifiuti e su illeciti ambientali ad esse correlati_Resoconto stenografico 9_Seduta di martedì 4 novembre 2014_Presidenza del Presidente Alessandro Bratti_ Audizione del direttore dell’Agenzia delle dogane e dei monopoli, Giuseppe Peleggi - Audizione del procuratore nazionale antimafia, Franco Roberti’. Italian Parliament.Google Scholar
  15. Commissione parlamentare inchiesta rifiuti (2016a). ‘Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sulle attività illecite connesse al ciclo dei rifiuti e su illeciti ambientali ad esse correlati_Resoconto stenografico 94_Seduta di giovedì 14 aprile 2016_Presidenza del Presidente Alessandro Bratti_Audizione del comandante generale del Corpo delle Capitanerie di porto – Guardia Costiera, Vincenzo Melone, Caligiore, Piras, Menna, Giovannone’. Italian Parliament.Google Scholar
  16. Commissione parlamentare inchiesta rifiuti (2016b). Commissione parlamentare di inchiesta sulle attività illecite connesse al ciclo dei rifiuti e su illeciti ambientali ad esse correlati_Resoconto stenografico_Audizione 114_Seduta di martedì 2 agosto 2016_Presidenza del Presidente Alessandro Bratti_Audizioni di delegati RSU della Miteni S.p.A. - Audizione del presidente del consiglio di amministrazione di AMA Spa, Daniele Fortini. Italian Parliament.Google Scholar
  17. Curtol, F., Di Nicola, A., Martocchia, S., & Savona, E. U. (2006a). Regulation of offshore banking services and financial entities. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 12(3–4), 279–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Curtol, F., Pesarin, G., & Vander Beken, T. (2006b). Testing the mechanism on EU public procurement legislation. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 12(3–4), 337–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. De Leonardis, F. (2011). I rifiuti: dallo smaltimento alla prevenzione. In Diritto dell’Ambiente, Seconda (pp. 303–20). Torino: G. Giappichelli.Google Scholar
  20. De Santis, G. (2008). Il delitto di “attività organizzate per il traffico illecito di rifiuti” nel quadro della annunciata riforma dello Statuto penale dell’ambiente. Responsabilità civile e previdenza, 4(April), 756–784.Google Scholar
  21. della Scala, M. G. (2009). La circolazione dei rifiuti tra discipline regionali, normativa statale, vincoli costituzionali e principi del diritto europeo (nota a C. cost., 23 gennaio 2009, n. 10). Il Foro Amministrativo C.d.S. Rivista mensile di dottrina e giurisprudenza, VIII(2), 361–385.Google Scholar
  22. Dorn, N., van Daele, S., & Vander Beken, T. (2007). Reducing vulnerabilities to crime of the European waste management industry: the Research Base and the prospects for policy. European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 23, 23–36.  https://doi.org/10.1163/092895607X193524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dorn, N., & Levi, M. (2006). Regulation of insurance and corporate security: integrating crime and terrorism seriousness into the analysis. European Journal of Criminal Policy and Research, 12(3–4), 257–277.Google Scholar
  24. EnviCrimeNet (2015). Report on Environmental Crime in Europe. IPEC. https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/report-environmental-crime-in-europe. Accessed 11 April 2017
  25. European Commission and Council (2015). Proposal for a Directive European Parliament and of the Council Amending Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste. http://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52015PC0595. Accessed 20 April 2017
  26. European Commission, Directorate-General Environment, and Director-General (2012). Guidance on the Interpretation of Key Provisions of Directive 2008/98/EC on Waste. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/waste/framework/pdf/guidance_doc.pdf. Accessed 20 April 2017
  27. European Environment Agency (2012). Movements of Waste across the EU’s Internal and External Borders’. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/movements-of-waste-EU-2012. Accessed 11 April 2017
  28. Ezroj, A. (2009). Extended producer responsibility programs in the European Union: In search of the optimal legal basis. Colorado Journal of International Environmental Law and Policy, 20, 199.Google Scholar
  29. Germani, A. R., Pergolizzi, A., & Reganati, F. (2015). Illegal trafficking and unsustainable waste Management in Italy: Evidence at regional level. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 4(4), 369–389.  https://doi.org/10.9770/jssi.2015.4(5).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayman, G., & Brack, D. (2002). ‘International Environmental Crime. The Nature and Control of Environmental Black Markets’. Royal Institute of international affairs. http://ec.europa.eu/environment/archives/docum/pdf/02544environmentalcrimeworkshop.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2017
  31. Hedemann-Robinson, M. (2012). EU enforcement of international environmental agreements: the role of the European Commission. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 21(1), 2–30.Google Scholar
  32. Hedemann-Robinson, M. (2015). Enforcement of EU environmental law: taking stock of the evolving union legal framework. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 24(5), 115–129.Google Scholar
  33. Iacoviello, A. (2007). La disciplina della circolazione dei rifiuti nella recente giurisprudenza della Corte Costituzionale. Rivista giuridica dell’Edilizia, 1(February), 15–32.Google Scholar
  34. Interview no. 1 (2016). Interview with selected EU expert from the academia.Google Scholar
  35. Interview no. 2 (2016). Interview with selected EU expert from the academia.Google Scholar
  36. Interview no. 3 (2016). Interview with selected EU expert from the judicial system.Google Scholar
  37. Interview no. 4. (2016). Interview with selected Italian expert from the academia.Google Scholar
  38. Interview no. 5. (2016). Interview with selected Italian expert from the judicial system.Google Scholar
  39. Interview no. 6. (2016). Interview with selected Italian expert from national observatory environment and legality.Google Scholar
  40. Interview no. 7 (2016). Interview with selected Italian expert from the academia and judicial system.Google Scholar
  41. Interview no. 8 (2016). Interview with selected Italian expert from the judicial system.Google Scholar
  42. Klenovšek, A., & Meško, G. (2011). International waste trafficking: Preliminary explorations. In G. Meško, D. Dimitrijević, & C. B. Fields (Eds.), Understanding and managing threats to the environment in South Eastern Europe (Vol. 2, pp. 79–99). Dordrecht: Springer.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-007-0611-85.
  43. Legambiente. (2015). Ecomafia 2015 - Corrotti, clan e inquinatori: Ladri di futuro all’assalto del belpaese. Napoli: Marotta & Cafiero.Google Scholar
  44. Liddick, D. (2010). The traffic in garbage and hazardous wastes: an overview. Trends in Organized Crime, 13(2–3), 134–146.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-009-9089-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Liu, Y., Kong, F., & Gonzalez, E. D. R. S. (2017). Dumping, waste management and ecological security: evidence from England. Journal of Cleaner Production, 167(November), 1425–1437.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.12.097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mancuso, M., & Savona, E. U. (2017). ‘Fighting Lllicit Firearms_Trafficking Routes and Actors at European Level. Final Report of Project FIRE (Www.Fireproject.Eu).’ Milan, Italy: Transcrime - Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore. http://www.transcrime.it/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/FIREFinalReport.pdf. Accessed 20 Dec 2017
  47. Massari, M., & Monzini, P. (2004). Dirty businesses in Italy: a case-study of illegal trafficking in hazardous waste. Global Crime, 6(3–4), 285–304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mastrodonato, G. (2010). The implementation of EC directives in Italy: the environmental code and the transversal tools. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 19(2), 80–86.Google Scholar
  49. Mastrodonato, G. (2012). Environmental protection and markets in waste management. The transposition of directive 2008/98/EC into the Italian legal system. European Energy and Environmental Law Review, 21(4), 165–175.Google Scholar
  50. Nash, H. A. (2009). The revised directive on waste: resolving legislative tensions in waste management? Journal of Environmental Law, 1, 139–149.Google Scholar
  51. Pak, P. (2008). Haste makes E-waste: A comparative analysis of how the United States should approach the growing e-waste threat. Cardozo Journal of International and Comparative Law, 16, 241.Google Scholar
  52. Paone, V. (2008). La tutela dell’ambiente e l’inquinamento da rifiuti. Dal D.p.r. 915/1982 al D. lgs. 4/2008. Giuffrè Editore.Google Scholar
  53. Pernice, M., & Mininni, G. (2008). Il sistema normativo e tecnico di gestione dei riufiuti. La nuova disciplina dopo il d. lgs. 152/2006 e la sua riforma. Testo Unico Ambientale 4. Trento: IPSOA Gruppo Wolters Kluwer.Google Scholar
  54. Pirlone, Francesca. 2015. I rifiuti urbani e i piani di gestione urbana all’interno della governance. Città e Territorio. Milan, Italy: FrancoAngeli s.r.l.Google Scholar
  55. Roraima, A., Benjamin, H. A., Helgessen, V., Jianlong, Z., Sarney Filho, J., & Widodo, J. (2017). Environmental crime. Tackling the Greatest Threats to Our Planet. UNEP. https://wedocs.unep.org/bitstream/handle/20.500.11822/20259/Our%20Planet%20March%202017.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y. Accessed 4 Feb 2018
  56. Rucevska, I., Nellemann, C., Isarin, N., Yang, W., Liu, N., Yu, K., Sandnaes, S., et al. (2015). Waste crime - waste risk: gaps in meeting the Global Waste Challenge. A UNEP Rapid Response Assessment. United Nations Environment Programme and GRID-Arendal.Google Scholar
  57. Ruggiero, V., & South, N. (2010). Green criminology and dirty collar crime. Critical Criminology, 18(4), 251–262.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10612-010-9122-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Sahramäki, I., Favarin, S., Mehlbaum, S., Savona, E., Spapens, T., & Kankaanranta, T. (2017). Wasting opportunities-prevention of illicit cross-border waste trafficking. European Journal of Policing Studies. http://www.maklu-online.eu/nl/tijdschrift/ejps/online-first/online-first/wasting-opportunities-prevention-illicit-cross-bor/pdf/. Accessed 19 Feb 2018
  59. Savona, E. U. (2006). ‘The Crime Risk Assessment Mechanism (CRAM) for Proofing EU and National Legislation against Crime. Final Report of Project MARC - Developing Mechanisms for Assessing the Risk of Crime Due to Legislation and Products in Order to Proof Them against Crime at an EU Level’. Transcrime.Google Scholar
  60. Savona, E. U. (2007). Double thematic issue on: proofing Eu legislation against crime. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 12(3–4), 177–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-007-9033-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Savona, Ernesto U. (2017). Proofing legislation against crime as situational prevention measure. In Crime prevention in the 21st century. Insightful approaches for crime prevention initiatives (p. 396). Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  62. Spapens, T. (2014). Invisible victims: The problem of policing environmental crime. In T. Spapens, R. White, & M. Kluin (Eds.), Environmental crime and its victims perspectives within green criminology (pp. 221–236). Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Limited.Google Scholar
  63. Staab, Andreas. (2013). Environment. In The European Union Explained: Institutions, Actors, Global Impact (3), Terza (pp. 171–79). Bloomington: Indiana Press University.Google Scholar
  64. Vagliasindi, G. M., Lucifora, A., & Bianco, F. (2015). ‘Fighting Environmental Crime in Italy: A Country Report. Study in the Framework of the EFFACE Research Project, Catania: University of Catania’. Catania, Italy: University of Catania. http://efface.eu/sites/default/files/EFFACEFighting%20Environmental%20Crime%20in%20Italy.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2017
  65. Vander Beken, T., & Balcaen, A. (2006). Crime opportunities provided by legislation in market sectors: mobile phones, waste disposal, banking, pharmaceuticals. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 12(3), 299–323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. White, R., & Heckenberg, D. (2011). Key vulnerabilities and limitations in the management of hazardous waste and its disposal: a checklist assessment tool. Journal of Environmental Protection, 02(09), 1257–1263.  https://doi.org/10.4236/jep.2011.29145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Law – Department of LawUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreMilanItaly
  2. 2.Faculty of Political and Social Sciences – Department of SociologyUniversità Cattolica del Sacro Cuore – Transcrime, Joint Research Centre on Transnational CrimeMilanItaly
  3. 3.Faculty of Political and Social Sciences – Department of SociologyUniversità Cattolica del Sacro CuoreMilanItaly

Personalised recommendations