Advertisement

Juvenile Victimization in Portugal through the Lens of ISRD-3: Lifetime Prevalence, Predictors, and Implications

  • Paula Cristina MartinsEmail author
  • Sílvia M. Mendes
  • Glória Fernández-Pacheco
  • Iva Tendais
Article

Introduction

Child and youth victimization is a universal phenomenon, common to all the different social groups, regardless of their condition (UNICEF 2014). Even though it has a lot of characteristics in common with adult victimization, child and youth victimization each have their own specificities (Martins 2016). In fact, child victimization rates are known to be greater than those of adults (Finkelhor 2008, 2011), and this cannot be explained only by the relative size of the child population. On the other hand, children are subject to a greater diversity of violence, insofar as, in addition to being victims of the same types of adult victimization, they are victimized by specific forms of violence (e.g., child abuse, bullying) and in different contexts: at home, school, and in the community, they are exposed to violence perpetrated by relatives and strangers, whether peers or adults (Cater et al. 2016). Also, childhood violence has a high developmental impact, as well as an effect...

Notes

References

  1. Aebi, M. F., & European Institute for Crime Prevention & Control. (2014). European sourcebook of crime and criminal justice statistics 2014 (5th ed.). Helsinki: HEUNI.Google Scholar
  2. Almeida, P. (2010). A Vitimação em Portugal – Apresentação de Dados de um Estudo Nacional. In MAI (Ed.), I Jornadas de Segurança Interna. Livro de atas. Lisboa: Ministério da Administração Interna.Google Scholar
  3. Asmussen, K. (2010). Key facts about child maltreatment (NSPCC Research Briefing). London: NSPCC. Retrieved from www.nspcc.org.uk/Inform/research/briefings/Key_facts_child_maltreatment_wda76280.html.
  4. Associação Portuguesa de Apoio à Vítima (APAV). (2011). Estatísticas APAV 2010 (retificadas). Retrieved from https://apav.pt/apav_v3/images/pdf/Estatisticas_APAV_2010.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  5. Associação Portuguesa de Apoio à Vítima (APAV). (2017a). Estatísticas APAV. Relatório Anual 2016. Retrieved from https://apav.pt/apav_v3/images/pdf/Estatisticas_APAV_Relatorio_Anual_2016.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  6. Associação Portuguesa de Apoio à Vítima (APAV). (2017b). Folhas informativas. https://apav.pt/apav_v3/index.php/pt/folhas-informativas. Accessed 25 Oct 2017.
  7. Beaton, D., Bombardier, C., Guillemin, F., & Ferraz, M. (2000). Guidelines for process of cross-cultural adaptation of selfreport measures. Spine, 25(24), 3186–3191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borsa, J. C., Damásio, B. F., & Bandeira, D. R. (2012). Adaptação e validação de instrumentos psicológicos entre culturas: algumas considerações. Paidéia, 22(53), 423–432.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-43272253201314. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cater, A., Andershed, A., & Andershed, H. (2016). Youth victimization in Sweden: prevalence, characteristics and relation to mental health and behavioral problems in young adulthood. Child Abuse & Neglect, 51, 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Comissão Nacional de Promoção dos Direitos e Proteção das Crianças e Jovens (CNPDPCJ). (2016). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2015. Lisboa: CNPDPCJ. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/preview_documentos.asp?r=5752&m=PDF. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  11. Comissão Nacional de Promoção dos Direitos e Proteção das Crianças e Jovens (CNPDPCJ). (2017). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2016. Lisboa: CNPDPCJ. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/preview_documentos.asp?r=6508&m=PDF. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  12. Comissão Nacional de Proteção das Crianças e Jovens em Risco (CNPCJR). (2011). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2010. Lisboa: CNPCJR. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/preview_documentos.asp?r=3453&m=PDF. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  13. Comissão Nacional de Proteção das Crianças e Jovens em Risco (CNPCJR). (2012). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2011. Lisboa: CNPCJR. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/%5Cdownloads%5CRelatorio_Final_2011%20_21.05.2012_.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  14. Comissão Nacional de Proteção das Crianças e Jovens em Risco (CNPCJR). (2013). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2012. Lisboa: CNPCJR. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/Relatorio_2012_28maio.pdf. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  15. Comissão Nacional de Proteção das Crianças e Jovens em Risco (CNPCJR). (2014). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2013. Lisboa: CNPCJR. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/Relatorio_Avaliacao_CPCJ_2013.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2018.
  16. Comissão Nacional de Proteção das Crianças e Jovens em Risco (CNPCJR). (2015). Relatório Anual de Avaliação da Atividade das CPCJ – 2014. Lisboa: CNPCJR. Retrieved from http://www.cnpcjr.pt/preview_documentos.asp?r=5603&m=PDF. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  17. Daigle, L., & Mummert, S. (2014). Sex-role identification and violent victimization: gender differences in the role of masculinity. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 29(2), 255–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dunlap, E., Golub, A., Johnson, B., & Benoit, E. (2009). Normalization of violence: experiences of childhood abuse by inner-city crack users. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 8(1), 15–34.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15332640802683359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Durrant, J., & Ensom, R. (2012). Physical punishment of children: lessons from 20 years of research. Canadian Medical Association, 184(12), 1373–1377.  https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.101314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Enzmann, M., Marshall, I., Killias, M., Junger-Tas, J., Steketee, M., & Gruszczynska, B. (2010). Self-reported youth delinquency in Europe and beyond: first results of the second international self-report delinquency study in the context of police and victimization data. European Journal of Criminology, 7(2), 159–183.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1477370809358018.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feng, J., Chang, Y., Chang, H., Fetzer, S., & DerWang, J. (2015). Prevalence of different forms of child maltreatment among Taiwanese adolescents: a population-based study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 42, 10–19.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2014.11.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Finkelhor, D. (2008). Childhood victimization: Violence, crime, and abuse in the lives of young people. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Finkelhor, D. (2011). Prevalence of child victimization, abuse, crime, and violence exposure. In J. W. White, M. P. Koss, & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Violence against women and children: Mapping the terrain (Vol. 1, pp. 9–29). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Finkelhor, D., & Ormrod, R. K. (2000). Juvenile victims of property crimes (NCJ184740). Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice, Office of Juvenile Delinquency and Prevention.Google Scholar
  25. Finkelhor, D., & Wells, M. (2003). Improving national data systems about juvenile victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(1), 77–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., Turner, H. A., & Hamby, S. L. (2005). The victimization of children and youth: a comprehensive, national survey. Child Maltreatment, 10(1), 5–25.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1077559504271287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2007). Poly-victimization: a neglected component in child victimization. Child Abuse & Neglect, 31, 7–26.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2006.06.008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H., Ormrod, R., & Hamby, S. L. (2009). Violence, abuse, and crime exposure in a national sample of children and youth. Pediatrics, 124(5), 1411–1423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2009a). Lifetime assessment of poly-victimization in a national sample of children and youth. Child Abuse & Neglect, 33, 403–411.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2008.09.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Finkelhor, D., Ormrod, R. K., & Turner, H. A. (2009b). The developmental epidemiology of childhood victimization. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 24(5), 711–731.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0886260508317185.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Finkelhor, D., Shattuck, A., Turner, H. A., Ormrod, R. K., & Hamby, S. L. (2011). Polyvictimization in developmental context. Journal of Child & Adolescent Trauma, 4(4), 291–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Finkelhor, D., Turner, H. A., Shattuck, A., & Hamby, S. (2013). Violence, crime, and abuse exposure in a national sample of children and youth: an update. JAMA Pediatrics, 167(7), 614–621.  https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gilad, M. (2017). The triple-C impact: responding to childhood exposure to crime and violence. Faculty scholarship. 1857. Retrieved from http://scholarship.law.upenn.edu/faculty_scholarship/1857.
  34. Hamby, S. L., & Finkelhor, D. (2000). The victimization of children: recommendations for assessment and instrument development. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 39(7), 829–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hartjen, C., & Priyadarsini, S. (2012). The global victimization of children. Problems and solutions. London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Herrenkohl, T., Hong, S., Klika, J., Herrenkohl, R., & Russo, M. (2013). Developmental impacts of child abuse and neglect related to adult mental health, substance use, and physical health. Journal of Family Violence, 28(2), 191–199.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10896-012-9474-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoff, E., Laursen, B., & Tardif, T. (2002). Socioeconomic status and parenting. In M. Borenstein (Ed.), Handbook of parenting: Biology and ecology of parenting (Vol. 2, pp. 231–252). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Jackson, A. M., & Deye, K. (2015). Aspects of abuse: consequences of childhood victimization. Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care, 45, 86–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jackson, V., Browne, K., & Joseph, S. (2016). The prevalence of childhood victimization experienced outside of the family: findings from an English prevalence study. Child Abuse & Neglect, 51, 343–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Knack, J., Vaillancourt, T., Krygsman, A., Arnocky, S., Vitoroulis, I., & Hepditch, J. (2014). Peer victimization: Understanding the developmental correlates of at-risk children and youth. In J. A. Burack & L. A. Schmidt (Eds.), Cultural and contextual perspectives on developmental risk and well-being (interdisciplinary approaches to knowledge and development) (pp. 107–126). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Lauritsen, J., & Heimer, K. (2008). The gender gap in violent victimization, 1973-2004. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 24, 125–147.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Lucia, S., Herrmann, L., & Killias, M. (2007). How important are interview methods and questionnaire designs in research on self-reported juvenile delinquency? An experimental comparison of internet vs. paper-and-pencil questionnaires and different definitions of the reference period. Journal of Experimental Criminology, 3(1), 39–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. MacMillan, H., Jamieson, E., & Walsh, C. (2003). Reported contact with child protection services among those reporting child physical and sexual abuse: results from a community survey. Child Abuse & Neglect, 27(12), 1397–1408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Martins, P. (2016). Children as victims and as perpetrators: From symbolic incongruence to ineffective practice. In V. Sharma & A. Brink (Eds.), Childhood through the looking glass (pp. 49–60). Oxford: Interdisciplinary Press.Google Scholar
  45. Martins, P., Tendais, I., Mendes, S., & Fernandez-Pacheco, G. (n.d., unpublished manuscript under peer review). Equivalence of paper and pencil and computer-based forms of administration of the Portuguese version of ISRD3.Google Scholar
  46. Mendes, S., & Carvalho, S. (2010). Portugal. In J. Junger-Tas, I. Marshall, D. Enzmann, M. Killias, M. Steketee, & B. Gruszczynska (Eds.), Juvenile delinquency in Europe and beyond. Results of the second international self–report delinquency study (pp. 205–212). London: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mendes, S., Martins, P., & Fernandez-Pacheco, G. (n.d., unpublished manuscript under peer review). Statistical considerations on the review of psychometric properties cross-cultural adaptation of self- report measures used in juvenile delinquent attitudes and behavior and victimization research.Google Scholar
  48. Minayo, M. (2001). Violência contra crianças e adolescentes: questão social, questão de saúde. Revista Brasileira de Saúde Materno Infantil, 1, 91–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Mrug, S., & Windle, M. (2010). Prospective effects of violence exposure across multiple contexts on early adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 51(8), 953–961.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mrug, S., Madan, A., & Windle, M. (2016). Emotional desensitization to violence contributes to adolescents’ violent behavior. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 44(1), 75–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Peixoto, A. (2012). Propensão, experiências e consequências da vitimização: Representações sociais. (Tese de doutoramento, ISCTE, Lisboa). Retrieved from https://run.unl.pt/handle/10362/7880. Accessed 1 Mar 2018.
  52. Pereda, N., Guilera, G., & Abada, J. (2014). Victimization and polyvictimization of Spanish children and youth: results from a community sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 38, 640–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Poole, M. K., Seal, D. W., & Taylor, C. A. (2014). A systematic review of universal campaigns targeting child physical abuse prevention. Health Education Research, 29, 388–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Radford, L., Corral, S., Bradley, C., & Fisher, H. L. (2013). The prevalence and impact of child maltreatment and other types of victimization in the UK: findings from a population survey of caregivers, children and young people and young adults. Child Abuse & Neglect, 37, 801–813.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.02.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Silva, D. G., & Dell’Aglio, D. D. (2016). Exposure to domestic and community violence and subjective wellbeing in adolescents. Paidéia (Ribeirão Preto). Advance online publication.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1982-43272665201603.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Taylor, C. A., Hamvas, L., & Paris, R. (2011). Perceived instrumentality and normativeness of corporal punishment use among black mothers. Family Relations, 60(1), 60–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tippett, N., & Wolke, D. (2014). Socioeconomic status and bullying: a meta-analysis. American Journal of Public Health, 104(6), 48–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Turner, H., Finkelhor, D., Hamby, S., & Shattuck, A. (2013). Family structure, victimization, and child mental health in a nationally representative sample. Social Science & Medicine, 87, 39–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. UNICEF. (2014). Ending violence against children: Six strategies for action. New York: United Nations Child Protection Section. http://www.unicef.org/publications/files/Ending_Violence_Against_Children_Six_strategies_for_action_EN_2_Sept_2014.pdf. Accessed 11 Sept 2017.
  60. Walsh, C., MacMillan, H., Trocmé, N., Jamieson, E., & Boyle, M. (2008). Measurement of victimization in adolescence: development and validation of the childhood experiences of violence questionnaire. Child Abuse & Neglect, 32, 1037–1057.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wright, E., Fagan, A., & Pinchevsky, G. (2013). The effects of exposure to violence and victimization across life domains on adolescent substance use. Child Abuse Neglect, 37(11), 899–909.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chiabu.2013.04.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Research Center on Child Studies I University of MinhoBragaPortugal
  2. 2.Research Center in Political Science I University of MinhoBragaPortugal
  3. 3.Universidad Loyola AndalucíaSevillaSpain

Personalised recommendations