Advertisement

European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research

, Volume 25, Issue 4, pp 469–488 | Cite as

Knowledge of Trafficking in Human Beings among Portuguese Social Services and Justice Professionals

  • Ana Cunha
  • Mariana GonçalvesEmail author
  • Marlene Matos
Article

Abstract

Knowledge about trafficking in human beings has several implications for various social service and justice professionals. The aim of this study was to examine the knowledge of social service and justice professionals regarding the characterization of this phenomenon and anti-trafficking policies in Portugal. Four hundred and forty-six social service and justice professionals completed an online Human Trafficking Knowledge survey. The results revealed that Portuguese professionals have, in general, a good level of knowledge about trafficking in human beings, revealing higher-level scores for issues, such as trafficking in human beings’ idiosyncrasies and purposes in Portugal, trafficker profiles, criminal behaviour, victim profiles and victimization dynamics. On the other hand, participants scored lower in trafficking in human being’s trajectories and specificities within Portugal. This knowledge appeared to be influenced by variables, such as professional experience, previous contact with trafficking and training in trafficking in human beings. National policies must promote professional formal training about trafficking in human beings in different areas.

Keywords

Human trafficking Knowledge Social service Justice professionals 

Notes

Funding

This study was partially conducted at the Psychology Research Centre (UID/PSI/01662/2013), University of Minho, and supported by the Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology and the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education through national funds and co-financed by FEDER through COMPETE2020 under the PT2020 Partnership Agreement (POCI-01-0145-FEDER-007653).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Bassiouni, C., Rothenberg, D., Higonnet, E., Farenga, C., & Invictus, A. S. (2010). Addressing international human trafficking in women and children for commercial sexual exploitation in the 21st century. Revue Internationale de Droit Pénal, 81(3), 417–491.  https://doi.org/10.3917/ridp.813.0417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Caneppele, S., & Mancuso, M. (2013). Are protection policies for human trafficking victims effective? An analysis of the Italian case. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 19(3), 259–273.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10610-012-9188-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clawson, H. J., & Dutch, N. (2008). Addressing the needs of victims of human trafficking: Challenges, barriers, and promising practices. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation.Google Scholar
  4. Clawson, H. J., Dutch, N., Solomon, A., & Grace, L. G. (2009). Human trafficking into and within the United States: A review of the literature. U.S. Department of Health & Human Services. Retrieved from https://aspe.hhs.gov/basic-report/human-trafficking-and-within-united-states-review-literature.
  5. Couto, D. (2012). Tráfico de seres humanos: perceções sociais, percursos de vitimização e de sobrevivência. Tese de Doutoramento [Trafficking in human beings: Social perceptions, patterns of victimization and survival, PhD thesis].Escola de Psicologia da Universidade do Minho: Braga. Universidade do Minho. Retrieved from https://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt. Accessed 7 November 2016.
  6. Cunha, A., Gonçalves, M., & Matos, M. (2016). Human Trafficking Knowledge Survey. Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho.Google Scholar
  7. Dando, C. J., Walsh, D., Brierley, R. (2016). Perceptions of Psychological Coercion and Human Trafficking in the West Midlands of England: Beginning to Know the Unknown. PLoS ONE, 11(5), e0153263.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. David, F. (2012). Organised crime and trafficking in persons. Trends and Issues in Crime and Criminal Justice, (436), 1.Google Scholar
  9. De Chesnay, M. (2013). Sex trafficking: A clinical guide for nurses. New York: Springer Publishing Company, LLC.Google Scholar
  10. Dovydaitis, T. (2010). Human trafficking: The role of the health care provider. Journal of Midwifery & Women’s Health, 55(5), 462–467.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmwh.2009.12.017.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. European Commission. (2014). The Fight Against Trafficking in Human Beings in EU: Promoting Legal Cooperation and Victims Protection. Retrieved from https://e-archivo.uc3m.es/handle/10016/19399.
  12. European Commission. (2015). Study on high-risk groups for trafficking in human beings. Final report. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.  https://doi.org/10.2837/59533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Europol. (2016). Situation Report, Trafficking in Human Beings in the EU. Europol Public Information. Retrieved from https://www.europol.europa.eu/publications-documents/trafficking-in-human-beings-in-eu.
  14. Eurostat. (2015). Traffick in Human Beings. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.  https://doi.org/10.2785/512112.
  15. Farrell, A. (2014). Environmental and institutional influences on police agency responses to human trafficking. Police Quarterly, 17(1), 3–29.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1098611113495050.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Farrell, A., & Fahy, S. (2010). The problem of human trafficking in the U.S.: Public frames and policy responses. Journal of Criminal Justice, 37, 617–626.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrimjus.2009.09.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farrell, A., & Pfeffer, R. (2014). Policing human trafficking cultural blinders and organizational barriers. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 653(1), 46–64.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716213515835.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farrell, A., McDevitt, J., & Fahy, S. (2010). Where are all the victims? Understanding the determinants of official identification of human trafficking incidents. Criminology & Public Policy, 9(2), 201–233.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-9133.2010.00621.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Farrell, A., Pfeffer, R., & Bright, K. (2015). Police perceptions of human trafficking. Journal of Crime and Justice.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.2014.995412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Fernandes, P. A. L. (2012). A Perceção dos militares da Guarda sobre o Tráfico de Seres Humanos. Relatório Científico Final do Trabalho de Investigação Aplicada.[The military perceptions of the trafficking in human beings. Final Scientific Report on Applied Research work]. Academia Militar: Lisboa. Retrieved from http://biblioteca.exercito.pt/plinkres.asp?Base=BE&Form=BIBLIO&SearchTxt="DP+2012"+%2B+"DP+2012%24"&StartRec=20&RecPag=5. Accessed 25 February 2018.
  21. Foti, R. J., & Lord, R. G. (1987). Prototypes and scripts: The effects of alternative methods of processing information on rating accuracy. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes,39(4), 318–340.Google Scholar
  22. Hemmings, S., Jakobwitz, S., Abas, M., Bick, D., Howard, L. M., Stanley, N., Zimmerman, C., & Oram, S. (2016). Responding to the health needs of survivors of human trafficking: A systematic review. BMC Health Services Research, 16(320).  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-016-1538-8.
  23. Hill, C., Memon, A., & McGeorge, P. (2008). The role of confirmation bias in suspect interviews: A systematic evaluation. Legal and Criminological Psychology, 13(2), 357–371.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hodge, D. R. (2014). Assisting victims of human trafficking: Strategies to facilitate identification, exit from trafficking, and the restoration of wellness. National Association of Social Workers.  https://doi.org/10.1093/sw/swu002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Holland, A. C. (2014). The role of the healthcare professional in human trafficking. Journal of Obstetric. Gynecologic, & Neonatal Nursing, 43(S1), S98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hounmenou, C. (2012). Human services Professionals' awareness of human trafficking. Journal of Policy Practice, 11(3), 192–206.  https://doi.org/10.1080/15588742.2012.655208.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Irwin, N. (2017). Police officer understandings of human trafficking and awareness of anti-trafficking measures. Policing: An International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 40(2).  https://doi.org/10.1108/PIJPSM-08-2015-0100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lourenço, E., Gonçalves, M., & Matos, M. (2018). Trafficking in human beings: Portuguese magistrates’ perceptions, Journal of Human Trafficking.  https://doi.org/10.1080/23322705.2018.1468160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Matos, M., Maia, A., Gonçalves, M., & Pinto, R. (2015). Tráfico de Pessoas e tramitação criminal [Trafficking in persons and criminal proceedings]. Lisboa: Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género. Resource Document. Comissão para a Cidadania e Igualdade de Género Retrieved from http://cid.cig.gov.pt. Accessed 7 November 2016.
  30. Matos, M., Gonçalves, M., & Maia, A. (2017). Human trafficking and criminal proceedings in Portugal: Discourses of professionals in the justice system. Trends in Organized Crime.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-017-9317-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI] , Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2011). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2010 [Trafficking in human beings report -2010]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  32. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2012). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2011 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2011]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  33. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2013). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2012 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2012]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  34. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2014). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2013 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2013]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  35. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2015). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2014 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2014]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  36. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2016). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2015 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2015]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  37. Ministério da Administração Interna [MAI], Observatório do Tráfico de Seres Humanos [OTSH]. (2017). Relatório sobre Tráfico de Seres Humanos - 2016 [Trafficking in human beings report - 2016]. Lisboa: OTSH. Retrieved from http://www.otsh.mai.gov.pt/Recursos/Pages/default.aspx. Accessed 20 April 2016.
  38. Monteiro, I., Matos, M., & Gonçalves, M. (2014). Human Trafficking Knowledge Survey. Braga, Portugal: Universidade do Minho.Google Scholar
  39. Newton, P. J., Mulcahy, T. M., & Martins, S. E. (2008). Finding victims of human trafficking. University of Chicago: National Opinion Research Center. Virginia Department of Criminal Justice and Services. Retrieved from https://www.dcjs.virginia.gov.
  40. Patel, R. B., Ahn, R., & Burke, T. F. (2010). Human trafficking in the emergency department. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 11(5), 402–404.Google Scholar
  41. Peixoto, J., Soares, A. G., Costa, P. M., Murteira, S., Pereira, S., Sabino, C. (2005). O tráfico de migrantes em Portugal: Perspectivas sociológicas, jurídicas e políticas [The trafficking of migrants in Portugal: Sociological, legal and political perspectives]. Lisboa: ACIME.Google Scholar
  42. Pereira, S., & Vasconcelos, J. (2007). Combate ao tráfico de seres humanos e trabalho forçado: Estudo de casos e respostas de Portugal [Combating trafficking in human beings and forced labor: Case studies and responses from Portugal]. Resource Document. International Labour Organization. http://www.ilo.org/global/lang%2D%2Den/index.htm. Accessed 10 November 2016.
  43. Poppema, S. T. (2013). Early identification of human trafficking victims. Abstracts / Contraception, 88(2), 297–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Renzetti, C. M., Bush, A., Castellanos, M., & Hunt, G. (2015). Does training make a difference? An evaluation of a specialized human trafficking training module for law enforcement officers. Journal of Crime and Justice, 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0735648X.2014.997913 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 101/2013, de 31 de dezembro [Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 101/2013, of December 31]. Diário da República - I Série, N.º 253. Aprova o III Plano Nacional contra o Tráfico de Seres Humanos (2014–2017) [Approves the 3rd national plan against trafficking in human beings (2014–2017)].Google Scholar
  46. Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 81/2007, de 22 de junho [Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 81/2007, of June 22]. Diário da República - I Série, N.º 119. Aprova o I Plano Nacional contra o Tráfico de Seres Humanos (2007–2010) [Approves the 1st National Plan against Trafficking in Human Beings (2007–2010)].Google Scholar
  47. Resolução do Conselho de Ministros n.º 94/2010, de 29 de novembro [Resolution of the Council of Ministers no. 94/2010, of November 29]. Diário da República - I Série, N.º 231. Aprova o II Plano Nacional contra o Tráfico de Seres Humanos (2011–2013) [Approves the 2nd national plan against trafficking in human beings (2011–2013)].Google Scholar
  48. Ross, C, Dimitrova, S., Howard, L. M., Dewey, M., Zimmerman, C., & Oram, S. (2015). Human trafficking and health: a cross-sectional survey of NHS professionals’ contact with victims of human trafficking. BMJ Open. 5.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Santos, B. S., Gomes, C., Duarte, M., & Baganha, M. I. (2008). Tráfico de mulheres em Portugal para fins de exploração sexual [Trafficking of women in Portugal for purposes of sexual exploitation]. Lisboa: CIG.Google Scholar
  50. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. (2016). Global report on trafficking in persons. New York: United Nations Publication. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime Retrieved from http://www.unodc.org.Google Scholar
  51. Villacampa, C., & Torres, N. (2017). Human trafficking for criminal exploitation: The failure to identify victims. European Journal on Criminal Policy and Research, 23(3), 393–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Wangsnes, G. R. (2014). A quantitative study: On social worker's awareness in identifying human trafficked victims (Masters Dissertation). California State University, San Bernardino.Google Scholar
  53. Zimmerman, C., & Borland, R. (2009). Caring for trafficked persons: Guidance for health providers. Geneva: International Organization for Migration. International Organization for Migration. Retrieved from http://publications.iom.int
  54. Zimmerman, C., Yun, K., Shvab, I., Watts, C., Trappolin, L., Treppete, M., Bimbi, F., Adams, B., Jiraporn, S., Beci, L., Albrecht, M., Bindel, J., Regan, L. (2003). The health risks and consequences of trafficking in women and adolescents. Findings from a European study. London: London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine. Retrieved from http://www.lshtm.ac.uk.
  55. Zimmerman, C., Hossain, M., & Watts, C. (2011). Human trafficking and health: A conceptual model to inform policy, intervention and research. Social Science & Medicine, 73(2), 327–335.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.05.028.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center of Investigation in Psychology, School of PsychologyUniversity of MinhoBragaPortugal

Personalised recommendations