Co-use of Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems and Combustible Cigarettes, and Their Association with Internalizing Pathology and Vulnerabilities
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Nicotine use and psychological distress exert negative bidirectional effects on one another, and are impacted by shared vulnerabilities. Little work has examined the extent to which these relations differ between adult electronic nicotine delivery system (ENDs) users with varied combustible cigarette use histories. The current study examined differences in internalizing symptoms and vulnerabilities between adult dual and single ENDs users with and without a history of combustible cigarette use. Single ENDs users without combustible use histories reported significantly greater stress and anxiety symptoms than single ENDs users with combustible use histories. Single ENDs users without combustible use histories reported greater anxiety and difficulty regulating their emotions than dual-users. Dual- and single users with prior combustible use histories did not differ in internalizing pathology or vulnerability presentations. This suggests that pathology and vulnerability presentation among nicotine users are influenced by both current and past nicotine use history.
KeywordsNicotine Electronic cigarettes Anxiety Distress tolerance Anxiety sensitivity Emotion regulation
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Mark V. Versella, Allison M. Borges, Christopher Lin and Teresa M. Leyro have no conflicts of interest to report.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
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