Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 41, Issue 6, pp 842–852 | Cite as

Insomnia Symptom Severity Modulates The Impact of Sleep Deprivation on Attentional Biases to Emotional Information

  • Ivan Vargas
  • Christopher L. Drake
  • Nestor L. Lopez-Duran
Original Article

Abstract

The present study evaluated the effect of experimental sleep deprivation on attentional biases to emotional information among a sample of 40 healthy, young adults. Participants were randomized into either a total sleep deprivation (i.e., 28 consecutive hours awake) or sleep control (i.e., 8-h sleep opportunity) condition. Participants also completed a modified version of the Dot Probe Task to assess attentional biases to positive and negative information and the insomnia severity index (ISI) to assess current insomnia symptom severity. While controlling for ISI scores, acute sleep deprivation was not associated with a greater bias to negative stimuli. In contrast, sleep deprivation predicted a significantly reduced bias to positive stimuli, but only among participants with relative low ISI scores. The present findings suggest that young adults with low levels of insomnia symptoms are particularly susceptible to the effects of sleep deprivation; such that acute sleep loss can reduce their natural tendencies to attend to positive information in the environment.

Keywords

Sleep deprivation Attentional bias Insomnia Cognition 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the Michigan Psychoneuroendocrinology Affective Laboratory staff, particularly Andrew Garton, Rebecca Mulder, Tonia Ballantyne, Lara Fawaz, Allie Hammond, and Rachel Cannon who assisted in data collection. Christopher Drake has received research support from Merck, Jazz, Aladdin Dreamer, Actelion, Pernix, Eisai, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation. Christopher Drake has received a speaker honorarium from Merck.

Funding

Funding for this research was provided by the University of Michigan Department of Psychology, University of Michigan Rackham Graduate School, Blue Cross Blue Shield of Michigan Foundation, and the American Psychological Association of Graduate Students. All grants were awarded to IV. The funding source had no role in the study design, data collection, analyses, or manuscript preparation.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Ivan Vargas and Nestor Lopez-Duran declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The present study was in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.

References

  1. Agnew, H. W., Webb, W. B., & Williams, R. L. (1966). The first night effect: an EEG study of sleep. Psychophysiology, 2(3), 263–266. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8986.1966.tb02650.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Aiken, L., West, S., & Reno, R. (1991). Multiple regression: Testing and interpreting interactions. Newbury Park: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  3. Bar-Haim, Y., Lamy, D., Lee, P., Bakermans-Kranenburg, M. J., & van IJzendoorn, M. H. (2007). Threat-related attentional bias in anxious and nonanxious individuals: A meta-analytic study. Psychological Bulletin, 133(1), 1–24.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bastien, C. H., Vallières, A., & Morin, C. M. (2001). Validation of the insomnia severity index as an outcome measure for insomnia research. Sleep Medicine, 2(4), 297–307. doi: 10.1016/S1389-9457(00)00065-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The Pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carney, C. E., Buysse, D. J., Ancoli-Israel, S., Edinger, J. D., Krystal, A. D., Lichstein, K. L., & Morin, C. M. (2012). The consensus sleep diary: Standardizing prospective sleep self-monitoring. Sleep, 35(2), 287–302. doi: 10.5665/sleep.1642.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. Cisler, J. M., & Koster, E. H. W. (2010). Mechanisms of attentional biases towards threat in anxiety disorders: An integrative review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(2), 203–216. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2009.11.003.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawson, J. F., & Richter, A. W. (2006). Probing three-way interactions in moderated multiple regression: Development and application of a slope difference test. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 917–926. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.91.4.917.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dohrenwend, B., Krassnoff, L., & Askenasy, A. (1978). Exemplification of a method for scaling life events: The PERI Life Events Scale. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 19(2), 205–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Espie, C. A. (2002). Insomnia: Conceptual issues in the development, persistence, and treatment of sleep disorder in adults. Annual Review of Psychology, 53, 215–243. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.53.100901.135243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Espie, C. A., Broomfield, N. M., MacMahon, K. M. A., Macphee, L. M., & Taylor, L. M. (2006). The attention-intention-effort pathway in the development of psychophysiologic insomnia: A theoretical review. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(4), 215–245. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2006.03.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Fernandez-Mendoza, J., Calhoun, S., Bixler, E. O., Pejovic, S., Karataraki, M., Liao, D., & Vgontzas, A. N. (2010). Insomnia with objective short sleep duration is associated with deficits in neuropsychological performance: A general population study. Sleep, 33(4), 459–465. doi: 10.1093/sleep/33.4.459.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Fortier-Brochu, E., Beaulieu-Bonneau, S., Ivers, H., & Morin, C. M. (2012). Insomnia and daytime cognitive performance: A meta-analysis. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 16(1), 83–94. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2011.03.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Franzen, P. L., Buysse, D. J., Dahl, R. E., Thompson, W., & Siegle, G. J. (2009). Sleep deprivation alters pupillary reactivity to emotional stimuli in healthy young adults. Biological Psychology, 80(3), 300–305. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsycho.2008.10.010.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Giedke, H., & Schwäzler, F. (2002). Therapeutic use of sleep deprivation in depression. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6(5), 361–377. doi: 10.1016/S1087-0792(02)90235-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Gotlib, I., & Neubauer, D. (2000). Information-processing approaches to the study of cognitive biases in depression. In S. Johnson, A. Hayes, Ti. Field, N. Schneiderman & P. McCabe (Eds.), Stress, coping, and depression (pp. 117–142). Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  18. Gotlib, I. H., Krasnoperova, E., Neubauer Yue, D., & Joormann, J. (2004). Attentional biases for negative interpersonal stimuli in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(1), 127–135. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.113.1.127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gujar, N., Yoo, S.-S., Hu, P., & Walker, M. (2011). Sleep deprivation amplifies reactivity of brain reward networks, biasing the appraisal of positive emotional experiences. The Journal of Neuroscience, 31(12), 4466–4474. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3220-10.2011.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  20. Haeffel, G. J., Thiessen, E. D., Campbell, M. W., Kaschak, M. P., & McNeil, N. M. (2009). Theory, not cultural context, will advance American psychology. The American Psychologist, 64(6), 570–571–574. doi: 10.1037/a0016191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Harris, K., Spiegelhalder, K., Espie, C. A., MacMahon, K. M. A., Woods, H. C., & Kyle, S. D. (2015). Sleep-related attentional bias in insomnia: A state-of-the-science review. Clinical Psychology Review, 42, 16–27. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2015.08.001.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Harvey, A. (2002). A cognitive model of insomnia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40(8), 869–893. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(01)00061-4.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Horne, J. A., & Ostberg, O. (1975). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2), 97–110.Google Scholar
  24. Jansson-Fröjmark, M., Bermås, M., & Kjellén, A. (2013). Attentional bias in insomnia: The dot-probe task with pictorial stimuli depicting daytime fatigue/malaise. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(3), 534–546. doi: 10.1007/s10608-012-9486-z.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Johns, M. (1991). A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: The Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep, 14(6), 540–545.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Selective attention to emotional faces following recovery from depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 80–85. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.80.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Joormann, J., Talbot, L., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Biased processing of emotional information in girls at risk for depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(1), 135–143. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.116.1.135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. W. (2001). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 605–613. doi: 10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. MacLeod, C. M., Mathews, A., & Tata, P. (1986). Attentional bias in emotional disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95(1), 15–20. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.95.1.15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. MacMahon, K. M. A., Broomfield, N. M., & Espie, C. A. (2006). Attention bias for sleep-related stimuli in primary insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome using the dot-probe task. Sleep, 29(11), 1420–1427.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Mai, E., & Buysse, D. J. (2008). Insomnia: Prevalence, impact, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and evaluation. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 3(2), 167–174. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2008.02.001.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  32. Mcglinchey, E., Talbot, S., Chang, K., Kaplan, K. A., Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2011). The effect of sleep deprivation on vocal expression of emotion in adolescents and adults. Sleep, 34(9), 1233–1241. doi: 10.5665/SlEEp.1246.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Mogg, K., & Bradley, B. P. (2005). Attentional bias in generalized anxiety disorder versus depressive disorder. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(1), 29–45. doi: 10.1007/s10608-005-1646-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Morin, C. M. (1993). Insomnia: Psychological assessment and management. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Morin, C. M., & Jarrin, D. C. (2013). Epidemiology of insomnia. Sleep Medicine Clinics, 8(3), 281–297. doi: 10.1016/j.jsmc.2013.05.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ohayon, M. M. (2002). Epidemiology of insomnia: What we know and what we still need to learn. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 6(2), 97–111. doi: 10.1053/smrv.2002.0186.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Riedel, B. W., & Lichstein, K. L. (2000). Insomnia and daytime functioning. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 4(3), 277–298. doi: 10.1053/smrv.1999.0074.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogosa, D. (1980). Comparing nonparallel regression lines. Psychological Bulletin, 88(2), 307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sadeh, A., Sharkey, K., & Carskadon, M. (1994). Activity-based sleep—wake identification: An empirical test of methodological issues. Sleep, 17(3), 201–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Spiegelhalder, K., Espie, C., & Riemann, D. (2009). Is sleep-related attentional bias due to sleepiness or sleeplessness? Cognition and Emotion, 23, 541–550. doi: 10.1080/02699930802022129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spiegelhalder, K., Kyle, S. D., Feige, B., Prem, M., Nissen, C., Espie, C., & Riemann, D. (2010). The impact of sleep-related attentional bias on polysomnographically measured sleep in primary insomnia. Sleep, 33(1), 107–112.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(10), 1092–1097.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Talbot, L. S., McGlinchey, E. L., Kaplan, K. A., Dahl, R. E., & Harvey, A. G. (2010). Sleep deprivation in adolescents and adults: Changes in affect. Emotion (Washington, D. C.), 10(6), 831–841. doi: 10.1037/a0020138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Tottenham, N., Borscheid, A., Ellertsen, K., Marcus, D., & Nelson, C. A. (2002). The NimStim face set. Retreived from http://www.macbrain.org/faces/index.htm.
  45. Vgontzas, A. N., Liao, D., Pejovic, S., Calhoun, S., Karataraki, M., Basta, M., & Bixler, E. O. (2010). Insomnia with short sleep duration and mortality: The Penn State cohort. Sleep, 33(9), 1159–1164.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  46. Watson, D., Clark, L., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Woods, H., Marchetti, L. M., Biello, S. M., & Espie, C. A. (2009). The clock as a focus of selective attention in those with primary insomnia: An experimental study using a modified Posner paradigm. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(3), 231–236. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2008.12.009.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Wu, J., & Bunney, W. (1990). The biological basis of an antidepressant response to sleep deprivation and relapse: Review and hypothesis. American Journal of Psychiatry, 147, 14–21.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Yoo, S.-S., Gujar, N., Hu, P., Jolesz, F. A., & Walker, M. P. (2007). The human emotional brain without sleep–a prefrontal amygdala disconnect. Current Biology, 17(20), R877–R878. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2007.08.007.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Behavioral Sleep Medicine Program, Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Center for Sleep and Circadian NeurobiologyUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  3. 3.Sleep Disorders and Research CenterHenry Ford HospitalDetroitUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MichiganAnn ArborUSA

Personalised recommendations