Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 576–587 | Cite as

The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest): Validation in a Sample of Adults with Social Anxiety Disorder

  • Simona C. Kaplan
  • Amanda S. Morrison
  • Philippe R. Goldin
  • Thomas M. Olino
  • Richard G. Heimberg
  • James J. Gross
Original Article


Cognitive distortions are thought to be central to the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders and are a widely acknowledged treatment target in cognitive-behavioral interventions. However, little research has focused on the measurement of cognitive distortions. The Cognitive Distortions Questionnaire (CD-Quest; de Oliveira, Trial-based cognitive therapy: A manual for clinicians, Routledge, New York, 2015), a brief, 15-item questionnaire, assesses the frequency and intensity of cognitive distortions. The CD-Quest has been shown to have sound psychometric properties in American, Australian, and Brazilian undergraduate samples and one Turkish-speaking outpatient clinical sample. The current study aimed to provide the first evaluation of the psychometric properties of the English version of the CD-Quest in a clinical sample and the first evaluation of any version of the CD-Quest in a sample of adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD). In a sample of treatment-seeking adults with SAD, the CD-Quest demonstrated good convergent validity, discriminant validity, known-groups validity, and treatment sensitivity. It also showed good internal consistency, and both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses supported the previously reported unitary factor structure. Findings extend prior research indicating the reliability and validity of the CD-Quest.


Cognitive distortion Cognitive error Assessment Cognitive model Social anxiety Social anxiety disorder 



This research was supported by an NIMH Grant R01 MH076074, awarded to James Gross, Ph.D.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

None of the authors of this manuscript have any other financial interests or potential conflicts of interest to report.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Animal Rights

No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Simona C. Kaplan
    • 1
  • Amanda S. Morrison
    • 2
  • Philippe R. Goldin
    • 3
  • Thomas M. Olino
    • 1
  • Richard G. Heimberg
    • 1
  • James J. Gross
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyTemple UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyStanford UniversityStanfordUSA
  3. 3.The Betty Irene Moore School of NursingUniversity of CaliforniaDavisUSA

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