Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 206–219 | Cite as

Emotion Regulation and the Transdiagnostic Role of Repetitive Negative Thinking in Adolescents with Social Anxiety and Depression

  • David H. Klemanski
  • Joshua Curtiss
  • Katie A. McLaughlin
  • Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
Original Article

Abstract

Social anxiety and depression are common mental health problems among adolescents and are frequently comorbid. Primary aims of this study were to (1) elucidate the nature of individual differences in specific emotion regulation deficits among adolescents with symptoms of social anxiety and depression, and (2) determine whether repetitive negative thinking (RNT) functions as a transdiagnostic factor. A diverse sample of adolescents (N = 1065) completed measures assessing emotion regulation and symptoms of social anxiety and depression. Results indicated that adolescents with high levels of social anxiety and depression symptoms reported decreased emotional awareness, dysregulated emotion expression, and reduced use of emotion management strategies. The hypothesized structural model in which RNT functions as a transdiagnostic factor exhibited a better fit than an alternative model in which worry and rumination function as separate predictors of symptomatology. Findings implicate emotion regulation deficits and RNT in the developmental psychopathology of youth anxiety and mood disorders.

Keywords

Repetitive negative thinking Emotion regulation Depression Social anxiety Transdiagnostic Research Domain Criteria 

Notes

Funding

This study was funded by Yale University.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

David Klemanski, Joshua Curtiss and Katie McLaughlin declare that they have no conflict of interest. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema (deceased) had no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Animal Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

References

  1. Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). Post-event rumination and negative self-appraisal in social phobia before and after treatment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(1), 136–144.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abela, J. R., Brozina, K., & Haigh, E. P. (2002). An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third- and seventh-grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30, 515–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Aldao, A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2010). Specificity of cognitive emotion regulation strategies: A transdiagnostic examination. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 974–983.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Barlow, D. H., Farchione, T. J., Fairholme, C. P., Ellard, K. K., Boisseau, C. L., Allen, L. B., & May, J. T. E. (2010). Unified protocol for transdiagnostic treatment of emotional disorders: Therapist guide. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Barrett, P. M., & Ollendick, T. H. (Eds.). (2004). Handbook of interventions that work with children and adolescents: prevention and treatment. Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  6. Beesdo, K., Bittner, A., Pine, D. S., Stein, M. B., Hofler, M., Lieb, R., et al. (2007). Incidence of social anxiety disorder and the consistent risk for secondary life depression in the first three decades of life. Archives of General Psychiatry, 64(8), 903–912.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Beidel, D. C., Fink, C. M., & Turner, S. M. (1996). Stability of anxious symptomatology in children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 24(3), 257–269.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1995). A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: The social phobia and anxiety inventory for children. Psychological Assessment, 71, 73–79.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (2000). Behavioral treatment of childhood social phobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68, 1072–1080.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., Young, B. J., Ammerman, R. T., Sallee, F. R., & Crosby, L. (2007). Psychopathology of adolescent social phobia. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 29, 47–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Berking, M., Ebert, D., Cuijpers, P., & Hofmann, S. G. (2013). Emotion regulation skills training enhances the efficacy of inpatient cognitive behavioral therapy for major depressive disorder: a randomized controlled trial. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 82(4), 234–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Blakemore, S. J. (2008). The social brain in adolescence. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9(4), 267–277.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bohnert, A. M., Crnic, K. A., & Lim, K. G. (2003). Emotional competence and aggressive behavior in school-age children. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 31, 79–91.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bradley, S. J. (1990). Affect regulation and psychopathology: Bridging the mind–body gap. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 35, 540–547.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Bradley, S. J. (2000). Affect regulation and the development of psychopathology. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Broderick, P. C., & Korteland, C. (2004). A prospective study of rumination and depression in early adolescence. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9(3), 383–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Browne, M. W., & Cudeck, R. (1993). Alternative ways of assessing model fit. In K. A. Bollen & J. S. Long (Eds.), Testing Structural Equation Models (pp. 136–162). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  18. Burstein, M., He, J. P., Kattan, G., Albano, A. M., Avenevoli, S., & Merikangas, K. R. (2011). Social Phobia and Subtypes in the National Comorbidity Survey-Adolescent Supplement: Prevalence, Correlates, and Comorbidity. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 50(9), 870–880.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. Campbell-Sills, L. & Barlow, D. H. (2007). Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety and mood disorders. In J.J. Gross (Ed., pp. 542-560) Handbook of Emotion Regulation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  20. Campbell-Sills, L., Barlow, D. H., Brown, T. A., & Hofmann, S. G. (2006). Acceptability and suppression of negative emotion in anxiety and mood disorders. Emotion, 6, 587–595.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Campos, J. J., Mumme, D. L., Kermoian, R., & Campos, R. G. (1994). A functionalist perspective on the nature of emotion. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59(2–3), 284–303.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Chartier, M. J., Hazen, A. L., & Stein, M. B. (1998). Lifetime patterns of social phobia: A retrospective study of the course of social phobia in a nonclinical population. Depression and Anxiety, 7(3), 113–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Chavira, D. A., Stein, M. B., Bailey, K., & Stein, M. T. (2004). Comorbidity of generalized social anxiety disorder and depression in a pediatric primary care sample. Journal of Affective Disorders, 80(2), 163–171.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Chorpita, B. F., Albana, A. M., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The structure of negative emotions in a clinical sample of children and adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(1), 74–85.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Chorpita, B. F., Daleiden, E. L., & Weisz, J. R. (2005). Identifying and selecting the common elements of evidence based interventions: A distillation and matching model. Mental Health Services Research, 7(1), 5–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Chorpita, B. F., Tracey, S. A., Brown, T. A., Collica, T. J., & Barlow, D. H. (1997). Assessment of worry in children and adolescents: An adaptation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(6), 569–581.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Cicchetti, D., Ackerman, B. P., & Izard, C. E. (1995). Emotions and emotion regulation in developmental psychopathology. Development and Psychopathology, 7, 1–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Clark, D. A. (2009). Cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety and depression: possibilities and limitations of a transdiagnostic perspective. Cognitive behaviour therapy, 38(S1), 29–34.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York, London: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  30. Cole, P. M., Martin, S. E., & Dennis, T. A. (2004). Emotion regulation as a scientific construct: Challenges and directions for child development research. Child Development, 75, 317–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. D’Avanzato, C., Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). Emotion regulation in depression and anxiety: examining diagnostic specificity and stability of strategy use. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(5), 968–980.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Doerfler, L. A., Felner, R. D., Rowlison, R. T., Raley, P. A., & Evans, E. (1988). Depression in children and adolescents: A comparative analysis of the utility and construct validity of two assessment measures. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56, 769–772.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Edwards, S. L., Rapee, R. M., & Franklin, J. (2003). Postevent rumination and recall bias for a social performance event in high and low socially anxious individuals. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(6), 603–617.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ehrenreich, J. T., Goldstein, C. R., Wright, L. R., & Barlow, D. H. (2009). Development of a unified protocol for the treatment of emotional disorders in youth. Child & Family Behavior tTherapy, 31(1), 20–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(3), 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Eisenberg, N., Fabes, R. A., Guthrie, I. K., & Reiser, M. (2000). Dispositional emotionality and regulation: Their role in predicting quality of social functioning. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 78(1), 136–157.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Eisenberg, N., Guthrie, I. K., Fabes, R. A., Reiser, M., Murphy, B. C., Holgren, R., et al. (1997). The relations of regulation and emotionality to resiliency and competent social functioning in elementary school children. Child Development, 68(2), 295–311.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Eisenberg, N., & Spinrad, T. L. (2004). Emotion-related regulation: Sharpening the definition. Child Development, 75, 334–339.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Esbjørn, B. H., Lønfeldt, N. N., Nielsen, S. K., Reinholdt-Dunne, M. L., Sømhovd, M. J., & Cartwright-Hatton, S. (2014). Meta-worry, worry, and anxiety in children and adolescents: Relationships and interactions. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, (ahead-of-print), 1-12. 31, 1086-1089Google Scholar
  40. Fresco, D. M., Frankel, A. N., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., & Heimberg, R. G. (2002). Distinct and overlapping features of rumination and worry: The relationship of cognitive production to negative affective states. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 179–188.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gross, J. J. (1998). The emerging field of emotion regulation: An integrative review. Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 271–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gross, J. J., & Thompson, R. A. (2007). Emotion regulation: Conceptual foundations. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation (pp. 3–24). New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hannesdottir, D. K., & Ollendick, T. H. (2007). The role of emotion regulation in the treatment of child anxiety disorders. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 10, 275–293.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Hofmann, S. G. (2007). Cognitive factors that maintain social anxiety disorder: A comprehensive model and its treatment implications. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 36(4), 193–209.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  45. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Fang, A., & Asnaani, A. (2012). Emotion dysregulation model of mood and anxiety disorders. Depression and Anxiety, 29(5), 409–416.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kashdan, T. B. (2007). Social anxiety spectrum and diminished positive experiences: Theoretical synthesis and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27, 348–365.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Kashdan, T. B., & Breen, W. E. (2008). Social anxiety and positive emotions: A prospective examination of a self-regulatory model with tendencies to suppress or express emotions as a moderating variable. Behavior Therapy, 39, 1–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Kashdan, T. B., & Herbert, J. D. (2001). Social anxiety disorder in childhood and adolescence: Current status and future directions. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 4(1), 37–61.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Kashdan, T. B., & Roberts, J. E. (2007). Social anxiety, depressive symptoms, and post-event rumination: Affective consequences and social contextual influences. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(3), 284–301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory manual. North Tonawanda, NY: Multi Health Systems.Google Scholar
  52. Kovacs, M. (2009). Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI) Technical Manual Update. Toronto, Canada: Multi-Health Systems.Google Scholar
  53. Kranzler, A., Young, J. F., Hankin, B. L., Abela, J. R., Elias, M. J., & Selby, E. A. (2016). Emotional Awareness: A Transdiagnostic Predictor of Depression and Anxiety for Children and Adolescents. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 45(3), 262–269.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. London, B., Downey, G., Bonica, C., & Paltin, I. (2007). Social causes and consequences of rejection sensitivity. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 17(3), 481–506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mahoney, A. E., McEvoy, P. M., & Moulds, M. L. (2012). Psychometric properties of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire in a clinical sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 26(2), 359–367.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. McEvoy, P. M., Mahoney, A. E., & Moulds, M. L. (2010). Are worry, rumination, and post-event processing one and the same?: Development of the Repetitive Thinking Questionnaire. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(5), 509–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. McEvoy, P. M., Watson, H., Watkins, E. R., & Nathan, P. (2013). The relationship between worry, rumination, and comorbidity: Evidence for repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic construct. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(1), 313–320.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McLaughlin, K. A., Aldao, A., Wisco, B. E., & Hilt, L. M. (2014). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor underlying transitions between internalizing symptoms and aggressive behavior in early adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 123(1), 13–23.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  59. McLaughlin, K. A., Hatzenbuehler, M. L., Mennin, D. S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Emotion dysregulation and adolescent psychopathology: A prospective study. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(9), 544–554.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  60. McLaughlin, K. A., Mennin, D. S., & Farach, F. J. (2007). The contributory role of worry in emotion generation and dysregulation in generalized anxiety disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45, 1735–1752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. McLaughlin, K. A., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2011). Rumination as a transdiagnostic factor in depression and anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 49(3), 186–193.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Mellings, T. M. B., & Alden, L. E. (2000). Cognitive process in social anxiety: The effects of self focused attention, rumination, and mood-congruent memory retrieval. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 3, 243–257.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Mennin, D. S., & Fresco, D. M. (2013). What, Me Worry and Ruminate About DSM-5 and RDoC? The Importance of Targeting Negative Self-Referential Processing. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 20(3), 258–267.Google Scholar
  64. Mennin, D. S., Holoway, R. M., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., & Heimberg, R. G. (2007). Delineating components of emotion and its dysregulation in anxiety and mood pathology. Behavior Therapy, 38, 284–302.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Mennin, D. S., McLaughlin, K. A., & Flanagan, T. J. (2009). Emotion regulation deficits in generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder, and their co-occurrence. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 866–871.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  66. Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Brody, D., Fisher, P. W., Bourdon, K., & Koretz, D. S. (2010a). Prevalence and treatment of mental disorders among US children in the 2001–2004 NHANES. Pediatrics, 125(1), 75–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Merikangas, K. R., He, J. P., Burstein, M., Swanson, S. A., Avenevoli, S., Cui, L., et al. (2010b). Lifetime prevalence of mental disorders in US adolescents: Results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication-Adolescent supplement (NCS-A). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 49(10), 980–989.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  68. Merikangas, K. R., Nakamura, B. A., & Kessler, R. C. (2009). Epidemiology of mental disorders in children and adolescents. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience, 11(1), 7–20.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  69. Meyer, T. J., Miller, M. L., Metzger, R. L., & Borkovec, T. D. (1990). Development and validation of the Penn State Worry Questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 28(6), 487–495.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2000). The role of rumination in depressive disorders and mixed/anxiety depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109(3), 504–511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2012). Emotion regulation and psychopathology: The role of gender. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 8, 161–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Stice, E., Wade, E., & Bohon, C. (2007). Reciprocal relations between rumination and bulimic, substance abuse, and depressive symptoms in female adolescents. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116, 198–207.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Watkins, E. R. (2011). A heuristic for developing transdiagnostic models of psychopathology: Explaining multifinality and divergent trajectories. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 6(6), 589–609.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., Wisco, B. E., & Lyubomirsky, S. (2008). Rethinking rumination. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 3, 400–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Parker, G., Wilhelm, K., Mitchell, P., Austin, M. P., Roussos, J., & Gladstone, G. (1999). The influence of anxiety as a risk to early onset major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52, 11–17.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Penza-Clyve, S., & Zeman, J. (2002). Initial validation of the emotion expression scale for children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 450–457.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Rachman, S., Grüter-Andrew, J., & Shafran, R. (2000). Post-event processing in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38(6), 611–617.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Reinholt, N., & Krogh, J. (2014). Efficacy of transdiagnostic cognitive behaviour therapy for anxiety disorders: A systematic review and meta-analysis of published outcome studies. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 43(3), 171–184.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Reynolds, W. M. (1994). Assessment of depression in children and adolescents by self-report measures. In W. M. Reynolds & H. F. Johnston (Eds.), Handbook of depression in children and adolescents (pp. 209–234). New York: Plenum Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Silk, J. S., Steinberg, L., & Morris, A. S. (2003). Adolescents’ emotion regulation in daily life: Links to depressive symptoms and problem behavior. Child Development, 74, 1869–1880.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Sim, L., & Zeman, J. (2005). Emotion regulation factors as mediators between body dissatisfaction and bulimic symptoms in early adolescent girls. Journal of Early Adolescence, 25, 478–496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Sim, L., & Zeman, J. (2006). The contribution of emotion regulation to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating in early adolescent girls. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 35, 207–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Southam-Gerow, M. A., & Kendall, P. C. (2000). A preliminary study of the emotional understanding of youth referred for treatment of anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 319–327.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Spokas, M. M., Luterek, J. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (2009). Social anxiety and emotion suppression: The mediating role of beliefs. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 283–291.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Stein, M. B., & Chavira, D. A. (1998). Subtypes of social phobia and comorbidity with depression and other anxiety disorders. Journal of Affective Disorders, 50, 11–16.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stein, M. B., Fuetsch, M., Müller, N., Höfler, M., Lieb, R., & Wittchen, H. (2001). Social anxiety disorder and the risk of depression: A prospective community study of adolescents and young adults. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58, 251–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Steinberg, L., & Avenevoli, S. (2000). The role of context in the development of psychopathology: A conceptual framework and some speculative propositions. Child Development, 71, 66–74.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Steinberg, L., Dahl, R., Keating, D., Kupfer, D. J., Masten, A. S., & Pine, D. (2006). The study of developmental psychopathology in adolescence: Integrating affective neuroscience with the study of context. In D. Cicchetti & D. Cohen (Eds.), Handbook of developmental psychopathology (2nd ed., pp. 710–741). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.Google Scholar
  89. Steinberg, L., Graham, S., O’Brien, L., Woolard, J., Cauffman, E., & Banich, M. (2009). Age differences in future orientation and delay discounting. Child Development, 80, 28–44.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Stice, E., Shaw, H., Bohon, C., Marti, C. N., & Rohde, P. (2009). A meta-analytic review of depression prevention programs for children and adolescents: factors that predict magnitude of intervention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77(3), 486.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  91. Storch, E. A., Masia-Warner, C., Dent, H. C., Roberti, J. W., & Fisher, P. H. (2004). Psychometric evaluation of the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents and the Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children: Construct validity and normative data. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18, 665–679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. Suveg, C., & Zeman, J. (2004). Emotion regulation in children with anxiety disorders. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 33, 750–759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Thompson, R. A. (1994). Emotion regulation: A theme in search of definition. In N. A. Fox (Ed.), The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Biological and behavioral aspects. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 59 (2-3), 25-52.Google Scholar
  94. Watkins, D. (1989). The role of confirmatory factor analysis in cross-cultural research. International Journal of Psychology, 24, 685–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Watkins, E. R. (2009). Depressive rumination and co-morbidity: Evidence for brooding as a transdiagnostic process. Journal of Rational-Emotive & Cognitive-Behavior Therapy, 27(3), 160–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Carey, G. (1988). Positive and negative affectivity and their relation to anxiety and depressive disorders. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 346–353.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., Weber, K., Assenheimer, J. S., Strauss, M., & McCormick, R. A. (1995). Testing a tripartite model: Exploring the symptom structure of anxiety and depression in student, adult, and patient samples. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 104, 15–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. Weems, C. F., Hammond-Laurence, K., Silverman, W. K., & Ferguson, C. (1997). The relation between anxiety sensitivity and depression in children and adolescents referred for anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(10), 961–966.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. Wells, A., & Carter, K. (2002). Further tests of a cognitive model of generalized anxiety disorder: Metacognitions and worry in GAD, panic disorder, social phobia, depression, and nonpatients. Behavior Therapy, 32(1), 85–102.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wittchen, H.-U., Stein, M. B., & Kessler, R. C. (1999). Social fears and social phobia in a community sample of adolescents and young adults: Prevalence, risk factors and comorbidity. Psychological Medicine, 29, 309–323.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Zeman, J., Cassano, M., Perry-Parrish, C., & Stegall, S. (2006). Emotion regulation in children and adolescents. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 27, 155–168.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Penza-Clyve, S. (2001). Development and initial validation of the children’s sadness management scale. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 25, 187–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Zeman, J., Shipman, K., & Suveg, C. (2002). Anger and sadness regulation: Predictions to internalizing and externalizing symptoms in children. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 31, 393–398.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • David H. Klemanski
    • 1
    • 2
  • Joshua Curtiss
    • 1
    • 3
  • Katie A. McLaughlin
    • 1
    • 4
  • Susan Nolen-Hoeksema
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyYale UniversityNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public HealthColumbia UniversityNew YorkUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyBoston UniversityBostonUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WashingtonSeattleUSA

Personalised recommendations