Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 39, Issue 2, pp 253–261

Duration and Timing of Sleep are Associated with Repetitive Negative Thinking

Brief Report

Abstract

Higher levels of repetitive negative thinking (RNT; a perseverative and abstract focus on negative aspects of one’s experience) are associated with reduced sleep duration. This information is already informing theory and clinical practice. However, we are not aware of any studies examining the relation between RNT and the timing of sleep. We examined both disorder specific measures of RNT and a transdiagnostic measure of the RNT process in relation to sleep duration and timing in a sample of 100 unselected undergraduates. Replicating prior findings, shorter sleep duration was cross-sectionally associated with more rumination and delayed sleep timing was associated with more obsessive–compulsive symptoms. Further, extending this prior work, the transdiagnostic measure of RNT was associated with shorter sleep duration and delayed sleep timing. Individuals who endorsed a preference for later sleep and activity times also reported more RNT. These findings suggest that RNT may be uniquely related to both sleep duration and timing.

Keywords

Repetitive negative thinking Worry Rumination OCD symptoms Sleep Bedtimes 

References

  1. Abe, T., Inoue, Y., Komada, Y., Nakamura, M., Asaoka, S., et al. (2011). Relation between morningness–eveningness score and depressive symptoms among patients with delayed sleep phase syndrome. Sleep Medicine, 12(7), 680–684.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Abela, J. R., Brozina, K., & Haigh, E. P. (2002). An examination of the response styles theory of depression in third-and seventh-grade children: A short-term longitudinal study. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 30(5), 515–527.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorder: DSM-5 (5th ed.). Washington: American Psychiatric Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armey, M. F., Fresco, D. M., Moore, M. T., Mennin, D. S., Turk, C. L., Heimberg, R. G., et al. (2009). Brooding and pondering: Isolating the active ingredients of depressive rumination with exploratory factor analysis and structural equation modeling. Assessment, 16, 315–327.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Baglioni, C., Spiegelhalder, K., Lombardo, C., & Riemann, D. (2010). Sleep and emotions: A focus on insomnia. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 14(4), 227–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Belleville, G., Cousineau, H., Levrier, K., & St-Pierre-Delorme, M. (2011). Meta-analytic review of the impact of cognitive-behavior therapy for insomnia on concomitant anxiety. Clinical Psychology Review, 31(4), 638–652.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Blagden, J. C., & Craske, M. G. (1996). Effects of active and passive rumination and distraction: A pilot replication with anxious mood. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 10(4), 243–252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borbely, A. A., & Achermann, P. (2005). Sleep homeostasis and models of sleep regulation. Principles and Practice of Sleep Medicine (pp. 405–417). Philadelphia: Elsevier Saunders.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Borkovec, T. (1994). The nature, functions, and origins of worry. In G. C. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives on theory, assessment, and treatment. Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  10. Borkovec, T. D., Ray, W. J., & Stober, J. (1998). Worry: A cognitive phenomenon intimately linked to affective, physiological, and interpersonal behavioral processes. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 22(6), 561–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Buboltz, W. C, Jr, Brown, F., & Soper, B. (2001). Sleep habits and patterns of college students: A preliminary study. Journal of American College Health, 50(3), 131–135.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Buysse, D. J., Reynolds, C. F, I. I. I., Monk, T. H., Berman, S. R., & Kupfer, D. J. (1989). The pittsburgh sleep quality index: A new instrument for psychiatric practice and research. Psychiatry Research, 28(2), 193–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Cajochen, C., Blatter, K., & Wallach, D. (2004). Circadian and sleep-wake dependent impact on neurobehavioral function. Psychologica Belgica, 44, 59–80.Google Scholar
  14. Calmes, C. A., & Roberts, J. E. (2007). Repetitive thought and emotional distress: Rumination and worry as prospective predictors of depressive and anxious symptomatology. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 31(3), 343–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Carskadon, M. A. (2011). Sleep in adolescents: The perfect storm. Pediatric Clinics of North America, 58(3), 637.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Carskadon, M. A., & Acebo, C. (2002). Regulation of sleepiness in adolescents: Update, insights, and speculation. Sleep, 25(6), 606–614.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chelminski, I., Ferraro, F. R., Petros, T. V., & Plaud, J. J. (1999). An analysis of the “eveningness–morningness” dimension in “depressive” college students. Journal of Affective Disorders, 52(1), 19–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Clark, D. A. (2002). Cognitive perspective on obsessive compulsive disorder and depression: Distinct and related features. In R. O. Frost & G. Steketee (Eds.), Cognitive approaches to obsessions and compulsions: Theory, assessment, and treatment (pp. 233–250). New York: Pergamon.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Clark, L. A., & Watson, D. (1991). Tripartite model of anxiety and depression: Psychometric evidence and taxonomic implications. [Special Issue: Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100, 316–336.Google Scholar
  20. Clasen, P. C., Wells, T. T., Knopik, V. S., McGeary, J. E., & Beevers, C. G. (2011). 5-HTTLPR and BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms moderate effects of stress on rumination. Genes, Brain and Behavior, 10(7), 740–746.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Coles, M. E., & Sharkey, K. M. (2011). Compulsion or chronobiology? A case of severe obsessive-compulsive disorder treated with cognitive-behavioral therapy augmented with chronotherapy. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 7(3), 307–309.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Cox, S. J., Mezulis, A. H., & Hyde, J. S. (2010). The influence of child gender role and maternal feedback to child stress on the emergence of the gender difference in depressive rumination in adolescence. Developmental Psychology, 46(4), 842–852.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Curcio, G., Ferrara, M., & De Gennaro, L. (2006). Sleep loss, learning capacity and academic performance. Sleep Medicine Reviews, 10(5), 323–337.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davey, G. C. (1993). A comparison of three worry questionnaires. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 31(1), 51–56.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Demeyer, I., De Lissnyder, E., Koster, E. H., & De Raedt, R. (2012). Rumination mediates the relationship between impaired cognitive control for emotional information and depressive symptoms: A prospective study in remitted depressed adults. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 50(5), 292–297.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ehring, T., Raes, F., Weidacker, K., & Emmelkamp, P. M. (2012). Validation of the Dutch version of the Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire (PTQ-NL). European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28(2), 102–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ehring, T., & Watkins, E. R. (2008). Repetitive negative thinking as a transdiagnostic process. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1(3), 192–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Ehring, T., Zetsche, U., Weidacker, K., Wahl, K., Schonfeld, S., & Ehlers, A. (2011). The perseverative thinking questionnaire (PTQ): Validation of a content-indpendent measure of repetitive negative thinking. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 42, 225–232.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Fairholme, C. P., Nosen, E. L., Nillni, Y. I., Schumacher, J. A., Tull, M. T., & Coffey, S. F. (2013). Sleep disturbance and emotion dysregulation as transdiagnostic processes in a comorbid sample. Behaviour Research and Therapy,. doi:10.1016/j.brat.2013.05.014.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Foa, E. B., Huppert, J. D., Leiberg, S., Langner, R., Kichic, R., Hajcak, G., et al. (2002). The obsessive-compulsive inventory: Development and validation of a short version. Psychological Assessment, 14(4), 485–496.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Foa, E. B., Kozak, M. J., Salkovskis, P. M., Coles, M. E., & Amir, N. (1998). The validation of a new obsessive-compulsive disorder scale: The obsessive-compulsive inventory. Psychological Assessment, 10(3), 206–214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Freeston, M. H., & Ladouceur, R. (1997). What do patients do with their obsessive thoughts? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35(4), 335–348.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Freeston, M. H., Ladouceur, R., Provencher, M., & Blais, F. (1995). Strategies used with intrusive thoughts: Context, appraisal, mood, and efficacy. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 9(3), 201–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gibb, B. E., Grassia, M., Stone, L. B., Uhrlass, D. J., & McGeary, J. E. (2012). Brooding rumination and risk for depressive disorders in children of depressed mothers. Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology, 40(2), 317–326.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Giorgio, J. M., Sanflippo, J., Kleiman, E., Reilly, D., Bender, R. E., & Wagner, C. A. (2010). An experiential avoidance conceptualization of depressive rumination: Three tests of the model. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(10), 1021–1031.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Grandner, M. A., Kripke, D. F., Yoon, I., & Youngstedt, S. D. (2006). Criterion validity of the Pittsburgh sleep quality index: Investigation in a non-clinical sample. Sleep and Biological Rhythms, 4(2), 129–136.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Gross, R. T., & Borkovec, T. (1982). Effects of a cognitive intrusion manipulation on the sleep-onset latency of good sleepers. Behavior Therapy, 13(1), 112–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Guastella, A. J., & Moulds, M. L. (2007). The impact of rumination on sleep quality following a stressful life event. Personality and Individual Differences, 42(6), 1151–1162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hallion, L. S., Ruscio, A. M., & Jha, A. P. (2014). Fractionating the role of executive control in control over worry: A preliminary investigation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 54, 1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Hamilton, J. P., Chen, M. C., & Gotlib, I. H. (2013). Neural systems approaches to understanding major depressive disorder: An intrinsic functional organization perspective. Neurobiology of disease, 52, 4–11.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (1999). One night of sleep loss impairs innovative thinking and flexible decision making. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 78(2), 128–145.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Harrison, Y., & Horne, J. A. (2000). The impact of sleep deprivation on decision making: A review. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Applied, 6(3), 236–249.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Harvey, A. G. (2002). Trouble in bed: The role of pre-sleep worry and intrusions in the maintenance of insomnia. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(2), 161–177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Harvey, A. G., Watkins, E., Mansell, W., & Shafran, R. (2004). Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: A transdiagnostic approach to research and treatment. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Hayes, A. F. (2013). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  47. Hayes, S., Hirsch, C., & Mathews, A. (2008). Restriction of working memory capacity during worry. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(3), 712–717.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hidalgo, M. P., Caumo, W., Posser, M., Coccaro, S. B., Camozzato, A. L., & Chaves, M. L. F. (2009). Relationship between depressive mood and chronotype in healthy subjects. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 63(3), 283–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Hilt, L. M., Armstrong, J. M., & Essex, M. J. (2012). Early family context and development of adolescent ruminative style: Moderation by temperament. Cognition and Emotion, 26(5), 916–926.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Hilt, L. M., Sander, L. C., Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Simen, A. A. (2007). The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism predicts rumination and depression differently in young adolescent girls and their mothers. Neuroscience Letters, 429(1), 12–16.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Hong, R. Y. (2007). Worry and rumination: Differential associations with anxious and depressive symptoms and coping behavior. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(2), 277–290.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Horne, J. A., & Ostberg, O. (1976). A self-assessment questionnaire to determine morningness-eveningness in human circadian rhythms. International Journal of Chronobiology, 4(2), 97–110.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Joormann, J., & Gotlib, I. H. (2008). Updating the contents of working memory in depression: Interference from irrelevant negative material. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117(1), 182–192.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Kang, S. H., Yoo, H. K., Chung, S., & Kim, C. Y. (2012). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime sleepiness and fatigue in korean male adolescents. Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology, 19(2), 89–96.Google Scholar
  55. Kessler, R. C., Amminger, G. P., Aguilar-Gaxiola, S., Alonso, J., Lee, S., & Ustun, T. B. (2007). Age of onset of mental disorders: A review of recent literature. Current Opinion in Psychiatry, 20(4), 359–364.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P., Demler, O., Jin, R., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Archives of General Psychiatry, 62(6), 593–602.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Kohyama, J. (2011). Neurochemical and neuropharmacological aspects of circadian disruptions: An introduction to asynchronization. Current Neuropharmacology, 9(2), 330–341.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Krebs, G., Hirsch, C. R., & Mathews, A. (2010). The effect of attention modification with explicit versus minimal instructions on worry. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(3), 251–256.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Lund, H. G., Reider, B. D., Whiting, A. B., & Prichard, J. R. (2010). Sleep patterns and predictors of disturbed sleep in a large population of college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 46(2), 124–132.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Lyubomirsky, S., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1995). Effects of self-focused rumination on negative thinking and interpersonal problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69(1), 176–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. Manber, R., Edinger, J. D., Gress, J. L., San Pedro-Salcedo, M. G., Kuo, T. F., & Kalista, T. (2008). Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia enhances depression outcome in patients with comorbid major depressive disorder and insomnia. Sleep, 31(4), 489–495.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. McEvoy, P. M., & Brans, S. (2013). Common versus unique variance across measures of worry and rumination: Predictive utility and mediational models for anxiety and depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 37(1), 183–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McEvoy, P. M., Mahoney, A. E., & Moulds, M. L. (2010). Are worry, rumination, and post-event processing one and the same? Development of the repetitive thinking questionnaire. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 24(5), 509–519.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Meijer, A. M., Habekothé, H. T., & Van Den Wittenboer, G. L. H. (2000). Time in bed, quality of sleep and social functioning of children. Journal of Sleep Research, 9, 145–153.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Moore, M. N., Salk, R. H., Van Hulle, C. A., Abramson, L. Y., Hyde, J. S., Lemery-Chalfant, K., et al. (2013). Genetic and environmental influences on rumination, distraction, and depressed mood in adolescence. Clinical psychological science, 1(3), 316–322.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Mukhopadhyay, S., Fineberg, N. A., Drummond, L. M., Turner, J., White, S., Wulff, K., et al. (2008). Delayed sleep phase in severe obsessive-compulsive disorder: A systematic case-report survey. CNS Spectrums, 13(5), 406–413.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Muzur, A., Pace-Schott, E. F., & Hobson, J. A. (2002). The prefrontal cortex in sleep. Trends in cognitive sciences, 6(11), 475–481.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Nilsson, J. P., Söderström, M., Karlsson, A. U., Lekander, M., Åkerstedt, T., Lindroth, N. E., et al. (2005). Less effective executive functioning after one night’s sleep deprivation. Journal of Sleep Research, 14(1), 1–6.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1991). Responses to depression and their effects on the duration of depressive episodes. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(4), 569–582.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Nolen-Hoeksema, S., & Morrow, J. (1991). A prospective study of depression and posttraumatic stress symptoms after a natural disaster: The 1989 loma prieta earthquake. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61(1), 115–121.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Pelayo, R., Thorpy, M., & Glovinsky, P. (1988). Prevalence of delayed sleep phase syndrome among adolescents. Sleep Res, 17, 392.Google Scholar
  72. Pilcher, J. J., & Huffcutt, A. J. (1996). Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: A meta-analysis. Sleep Journal of Sleep Research & Sleep Medicine, 19(4), 318–326.Google Scholar
  73. Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior research methods, 40(3), 879–891.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Randler, C. (2011). Association between morningness–eveningness and mental and physical health in adolescents. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 16(1), 29–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Reid, K. J., Jaksa, A. A., Eisengart, J. B., Baron, K. G., & Lu, B. (2012). Systematic evaluation of axis-I DSM diagnoses in delayed sleep phase disorder and evening-type circadian preference. Sleep Medicine, 13, 1171–1177.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Sakamoto, S., Kambara, M., & Tanno, Y. (2001). Response styles and cognitive and affective symptoms of depression. Personality and Individual Differences, 31(7), 1053–1065.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Schubert, J. R., & Coles, M. E. (2013). Obsessive compulsive symptoms and characteristics in individuals with delayed sleep phase disorder. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 201(10), 877–884.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Starr, L. R., & Davila, J. (2012). Responding to anxiety with rumination and hopelessness: Mechanism of anxiety-depression symptom co-occurrence? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 36(4), 321–337.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Stöber, J. (1998). Reliability and validity of two widely-used worry questionnaires: Self-report and self-peer convergence. Personality and Individual Differences, 24(6), 887–890.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Takano, K., Iijima, Y., & Tanno, Y. (2012). Repetitive thought and self-reported sleep disturbance. Behavior Therapy, 43, 779–789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. Tallis, F., Eysenck, M., & Mathews, A. (1992). A questionnaire for the measurement of nonpathological worry. Personality and Individual Differences, 13(2), 161–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Thomsen, D. K., Yung Mehlsen, M., Christensen, S., & Zachariae, R. (2003). Rumination—relationship with negative mood and sleep quality. Personality and Individual Differences, 34(7), 1293–1301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Treynor, W., Gonzalez, R., & Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2003). Rumination reconsidered: A psychometric analysis. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 27(3), 247–259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Turner, J., Drummond, L. M., Mukhopadhyay, S., Ghodse, H., White, S., Pillay, A., et al. (2007). A prospective study of delayed sleep phase syndrome in patients with severe resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder. World Psychiatry, 6(2), 108–111.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. Tzischinsky, O., & Shochat, T. (2009). Eveningness, sleep patterns, daytime functioning, and quality of life in israeli adolescents. Chronobiology International, 28(4), 338–343.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Vandekerckhove, M., Kestemont, J., Gross, J. J., Weiss, R., Schotte, C., & Exadaktylos, V. (2012). Experiential versus analytical emotion regulation and sleep: Breaking the link between negative events and sleep disturbance. Emotion, 12(6), 1415–1421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. Wahl, K., Ertle, A., Bohne, A., Zurowski, B., & Kordon, A. (2011). Relations between a ruminative thinking style and obsessive–compulsive symptoms in non-clinical samples. Anxiety, Stress, & Coping, 24(2), 217–225.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Walker, M. P. (2009). The role of sleep in cognition and emotion. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1156(1), 168–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. Watkins, E. R. (2008). Constructive and unconstructive repetitive thought. Psychological Bulletin, 134(2), 163–206.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social, 54, 1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Wells, A. (1994). Attention and the control of worry. In G. C. L. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives on theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 91–114). Oxford: Wiley.Google Scholar
  92. Wirz-Justice, A., Benedetti, F., & Terman, M. (2009). Chronotherapeutics for affective disorders: A clinician’s manual for light and wake therapy. Switzerland: Karger.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wittmann, M., Dinich, J., Merrow, M., & Roenneberg, T. (2006). Social jetlag: Misalignment of biological and social time. Chronobiology International, 23(1–2), 497–509.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. Wright, K. P, Jr, Hull, J. T., Hughes, R. J., Ronda, J. M., & Czeisler, C. A. (2006). Sleep and wakefulness out of phase with internal biological time impairs learning in humans. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 18(4), 508–521.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. Wulff, K., Gatti, S., Wettstein, J. G., & Foster, R. G. (2010). Sleep and circadian rhythm disruption in psychiatric and neurodegenerative disease. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11(8), 589–599.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. Zoccola, P. M., Dickerson, S. S., & Lam, S. (2009). Rumination predicts longer sleep onset latency after an acute psychosocial stressor. Psychosomatic Medicine, 71(7), 771–775.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyBinghamton UniversityBinghamtonUSA

Personalised recommendations