The Cognitive Behavioural Processes Questionnaire: A Preliminary Analysis within Student, Mixed Clinical and Community Samples and the Identification of a Core Transdiagnostic Process
- 521 Downloads
Theorists have highlighted the commonalities in cognitive and behavioural processes across multiple disorders i.e. transdiagnostic approach. We report two studies that tested the psychometric properties of a new scale to assess these processes. The Cognitive and Behavioural Processes Questionnaire (CBP-Q) was developed as a 15-item measure. In Study 1, the CBP-Q was administered to a student (n = 172) sample with a range of standardised measures of the processes and symptom measures. Study 2 repeated the evaluation in a mixed clinical group (n = 161) and a community control group (n = 57). An exploratory factor analysis resulted in a 12-item version of the CBP-Q, consisting of a single factor. The measure demonstrated good internal consistency, test–retest stability and satisfactory convergent and divergent validity in both studies. Correlations with symptom-based measures showed increased engagement in these cognitive and behavioural processes to be associated with higher levels of symptomatology. The scale was elevated in the clinical relative to the community group and there were no differences in scores between broad diagnostic groupings (anxiety vs. mood vs. other). The CBP-Q has good psychometric properties. The findings are consistent with the transdiagnostic approach and indicate that a single, as yet unspecified factor may account for the shared variance across cognitive and behavioural maintenance processes.
KeywordsTransdiagnostic Cognitive processes Behavioural processes Control theory
This study presents independent research part-funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Biomedical Research Centre at South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust and King’s College London. We would like to acknowledge support from the Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College London, which allowed volunteers from the community to be given the option of receiving a £10 high street voucher. The views expressed are those of the author(s) and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR or the Department of Health. We would like to thank Matthew Jones Chesters (UEL) for his statistical advice, as well as Lucy Serpell (UCL), and Six Degrees Social Enterprise for their help with recruitment.
Conflict of Interest
Trishna Patel, Warren Mansell and David Veale declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (national and institutional). Informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects participating in the study. If any identifying information is contained in the paper the following statement is also necessary—Additional informed consent was obtained from any subjects for whom identifying information appears in this paper.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
- Baracca Mairal, J. (2004). Spanish adaptation of the acceptance and action questionnaire. International Journal of Psychology and Psychological Therapy, 4, 505–515.Google Scholar
- Carey, T. A. (2006). The methods of levels: How to do psychotherapy without getting in the way. Hayward: Living Control Systems.Google Scholar
- Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders-patient edition (SCID-I/P, Version 2.0). New York: Biometrics Research Department of the New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
- Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion: Conceptualisation, research and use in psychotherapy. Hove: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Harvey, A., Watkins, E., Mansell, W., & Shafran, R. (2004). Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K. D., & Wilson, K. G. (1999). Acceptance and commitment therapy: An experiential approach to behaviour change. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Hayes, S. C., Strosahl, K., Wilson, K. G., Bissett, R. T., Pistorello, J., Toarmino, D., et al. (2004). Measuring experiential avoidance: A preliminary test of a working model. The Psychological Record, 54, 553–578.Google Scholar
- Mansell, W., Carey, T. A., & Tai, S. (2012). A Transdiagnostic approach to CBT using method of levels therapy. East Sussex: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Mansell, W., Harvey, A., Watkins, E., & Shafran, R. (2008). Cognitive behavioural processes across psychological disorders: A review of the utility and validity of the transdiagnostic approach. International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, 1, 181–191.Google Scholar
- Molina, S., & Borkovec, T. D. (1994). The penn state worry questionnaire: Psychometric properties and associated characteristics. In G. C. L. Davey & F. Tallis (Eds.), Worrying: Perspectives on theory, assessment and treatment (pp. 265–283). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Powers, W. T. (1973). Behavior: The control of perception. Chicago: Aldine Publishing Co.Google Scholar
- Snider, J. G., & Osgood, C. E. (1969). Semantic differential technique: A sourcebook. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2007). Using multivariate statistics (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Google Scholar
- Veale, D., Eshkevari, E., Kanakam, N., Ellison, N., Costa, A., & Werner, T. (2014). The Appearance Anxiety Inventory: Validation of a process measure in the treatment of body dysmorphic disorder. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 42, 605–616.Google Scholar
- Wells, A. (2009). Metacognitive therapy for anxiety and depression. New York: Guildford Press.Google Scholar
- Wells, A., & Matthews, G. (1994). Attention and emotion: A clinical perspective. Hove: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Wilson, P., & Cooper, C. (2008). Finding the magic number. The Psychologist, 21, 866–867.Google Scholar