Interpersonal Emotion Regulation Model of Mood and Anxiety Disorders
- 2.2k Downloads
Although social factors are of critical importance in the development and maintenance of emotional disorders, the contemporary view of emotion regulation has been primarily limited to intrapersonal processes. Based on diverse perspectives pointing to the communicative function of emotions, the social processes in self-regulation, and the role of social support, this article presents an interpersonal model of emotion regulation of mood and anxiety disorders. This model provides a theoretical framework to understand and explain how mood and anxiety disorders are regulated and maintained through others. The literature, which provides support for the model, is reviewed and the clinical implications are discussed.
KeywordsEmotion Emotion regulation Interpersonal Anxiety Depression Mood Classification Research domain criteria
Dr. Hofmann is supported by NIMH Grant R01AT007257.
Conflict of Interest
Stefan G. Hofmann declares that he have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (national and institutional). Informed consent was obtained from all individual subjects participating in the study. If any identifying information is contained in the paper the following statement is also necessary. Additional informed consent was obtained from any subjects for whom identifying information appears in this paper.
All institutional and national guidelines for the care and use of laboratory animals were followed.
- Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Alloy, L. B., Abramson, L. Y., Tashman, N. A., Steinberg, D. L., Hogan, M. E., Whitehouse, W. G., et al. (2001). Developmental origins of cognitive vulnerability to depression: Parenting, cognitive, and inferential feedback styles of the parents of individuals at high and low cognitive risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 397–423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Bargh, J. A., & Ferguson, M. J. (2000). Beyond behaviorism: On the automaticity of higher mental processes. Psychological Review, 126, 925–945.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1973). Attachment and loss: Vol. 2. Separation: Anxiety and anger. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Bowlby, J. (1982). Attachment and loss: Vol. 1 (2nd ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Brown, G. W., & Harris, T. (1978). Social origins of depression: A study of psychological disorder in women. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Buss, A. H. (1980). Self-consciousness and social anxiety. San Francisco: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Cacioppo, J. T., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2010). Perceived social isolation makes me sad: 5-year cross-lagged analyses of loneliness and depressive symptomatology in the Chicago health, aging, and social relations study. Psychology and Aging, 25, 453–463.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Coan, J. (2011). The social regulation of emotion. In J. Decety & J. T. Cacioppo (Eds.), Handbook of social neuroscience (pp. 614–623). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Cooley, C. H. (1902). Human nature and the social order. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons.Google Scholar
- Darwin, C. (1955/1872). Expression of the emotions in man and animals (reprinted edition). New York: Philosophical library.Google Scholar
- Duval, S., & Wicklund, R. (1972). A theory of objective self-awareness. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Gergen, K. J. (1971). The concept of self. NY: Holt, Rinehart, & Winston.Google Scholar
- Greenberg, L. S. (2011). Emotion-focused therapy. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Ingram, R. E. (1990). Self-focused attention in clinical disorders: Review and a conceptual modal. Psychological Bulletin, 107, 156–176.Google Scholar
- James, W. W. (1984/1892). Psychology. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press (original work published 1892).Google Scholar
- Lazarus, R. S., & Folkman, S. (1984). Stress, appraisal, and coping. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Mead, G. H. (1934). Mind, self, and society. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
- Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. R. (2007). Attachment in adulthood: Structure, dynamics, and change. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Pasch, L. A., Bradbury, T. N., & Davila, J. (1997). Gender, negative affectivity, and observed social support behavior in marital interaction. Personal Relationships, 4, 361–378.Google Scholar
- Preston, S. D., & de Waal, F. B. (2002). Empathy: Its ultimate and proximate bases. Behavioural Brain Sciences, 25, 1–20.Google Scholar
- Rehman, U. S., Gintin, J., Karimiha, G., & Goodnight, J. A. (2010). Revisiting the relationship between depressive symptoms and marital communication using an experimental paradigm: The moderating effect of acute sad mood. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48, 97–105.Google Scholar