Coherence Between Attentional and Memory Biases in Sad and Formerly Depressed Individuals
- 481 Downloads
Cognitive theories assume a uniform processing bias across different samples, but the empirical support for this claim is rather weak and inconsistent. Therefore, coherence between biases across different cognitive domains in a sample of 133 non-depressed (Study 1) and a sample of 266 formerly depressed individuals (Study 2) was examined. In both studies, individuals were selected after a successful sad mood induction procedure. A Dot Probe task, an Emotional Stroop task and a self-referential Incidental Learning and Free Recall task were administered to all participants. Principle component analyses indicated coherence between attentional and memory bias in non-depressed, while in formerly depressed individuals distinct components for attentional biases and for memory bias were uncovered. The data suggest that in formerly depressed individuals, self-referent processing during encoding may be related to memory bias, whereas in non-depressed individuals memory bias may be related to both attentional bias and self-referent processing.
KeywordsDepression Attentional bias Memory bias Imagery Coherence
We would like to thank the participants for their time and effort and the Behavioural Science Institute for its support.
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text revision). Washington. DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T. (1976). Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T. (1983). Cognitive therapy of depression: New perspectives. In P. J. Clayton & J. E. Barrett (Eds.), Treatment of depression: Old controversies and new approaches (pp. 315–350). New York: Raven Press.Google Scholar
- Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory manual (2nd ed.). Sabn Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (1999). Affective norms for English words (ANEW): Instruction manual and affective ratings. Technical Report C-1, The Center for Research in Psychophysiology, University of Florida.Google Scholar
- Bradley, B. P., Mogg, K., & Lee, S. C. (1997). Attentional biases for negative information in induced and naturally occurring dysphoria. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 911–927.Google Scholar
- First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (1995). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders—patient version 2.0 (SCID-1/P). New York: Biometrics Research Dept, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
- Lundqvist, D., Flykt, A., & Öhman, A. (1998). The Karolinska directed emotional faces. Stockholm: Karolinska Institute, Psychology section, Department of Clinical Neuroscience.Google Scholar
- Phaf, R. H., van der Leij, A. R., Stienen, B. M. C., & Bierman, D. (2006). Positieve, neutrale en negatieve woorden bij minimale aanbieding: Een ordening door perceptuele clarificatie [Positive, neutral and negative words at minimal presentation levels: Ordering by perceptual clarification]. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Technical Report, Universiteit van Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Raes, F., Williams, J. M. G., & Hermans, D. (2009). Reducing cognitive vulnerability to depression: A preliminary investigation of MEmory Specificity Training (MEST) in inpatients with depressive symptomatology. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 40, 24–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raven, J. C. (1958). Standard progressive matrices. London: H. K. Lewis.Google Scholar