Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 38, Issue 1, pp 1–9 | Cite as

Mindfulness Practice, Rumination and Clinical Outcome in Mindfulness-Based Treatment

  • Lance L. Hawley
  • Danielle Schwartz
  • Peter J. Bieling
  • Julie Irving
  • Kathleen Corcoran
  • Norman A. S. Farb
  • Adam K. Anderson
  • Zindel V. Segal
Original Article


Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) and mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) are particularly effective treatment approaches in terms of alleviating depressive symptoms and preventing relapse once remission has been achieved. Although engaging in mindfulness practice is an essential element of both treatments; it is unclear whether informal or formal practices differentially impact on symptom alleviation. The current study utilizes a correlational design to examine data provided by thirty-two previously depressed, remitted outpatients who received either MBCT or MBSR treatment. Outpatients in the MBCT group received treatment as part of a previously published randomized efficacy trial (Segal et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 67:1256–1264, 2010), while those in the MBSR group received treatment as part of a separate, unpublished randomized clinical trial. Throughout treatment, clients reported on their use of formal and informal mindfulness practices. Results indicate that engaging in formal (but not informal) mindfulness practice was associated with decreased rumination, which was associated with symptom alleviation.


MBCT MBSR Mindfulness practice Depression Rumination Distraction 



This study was funded, in part, by Grant #066992 (R01: Dr. Segal) from the National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, MD. We thank the following colleagues for contributing to this research. Robert Cook, Lawrence Martin and Jennifer Brasch served as study psychiatrists. Shelly Ferris, Kate Szacun-Shimizu, and Karyn Hood served as study coordinators. Susan Woods and Theresa Casteels served as MBCT study therapists. Lori Hoar, Joanne Nault, Rebecca Pedersen and Zoe Laksman served as project interviewers, Bao Chau Du and Heidy Morales provided research support. Tom Buis and Andrew Pedersen provided programming and data analytic support. David Streiner provided statistical and study design consultation. Karen Brozina-Hawley assisted with proofreading and editing.

Conflict of interest



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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lance L. Hawley
    • 1
    • 2
  • Danielle Schwartz
    • 1
  • Peter J. Bieling
    • 3
  • Julie Irving
    • 1
  • Kathleen Corcoran
    • 4
  • Norman A. S. Farb
    • 2
  • Adam K. Anderson
    • 2
    • 5
  • Zindel V. Segal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.University of TorontoTorontoCanada
  3. 3.St. Joseph’s HealthcareHamiltonCanada
  4. 4.Stanford UniversityPalo AltoUSA
  5. 5.Rotman Research Institute, BaycrestTorontoCanada

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