Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 37, Issue 5, pp 1015–1026 | Cite as

Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in the Treatment of Fibromyalgia: A Randomised Trial

  • Marta Parra-Delgado
  • José Miguel Latorre-Postigo
Original Article

Abstract

Fibromyalgia syndrome has a strong clinical and social impact affecting the personal, family and working life of the sufferer. The presence of depressive symptoms is associated with decreased quality of life and an increase in the intensity of pain. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in reducing the impact of fibromyalgia, the depressive symptoms and the intensity of pain in women with fibromyalgia. An experimental pre-post treatment design with a 3-month follow-up was carried out. Female patients (N = 33) were randomised to MBCT or to a control group condition. MBCT is an 8-week group intervention. Measures included: Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory and Visual Analogue Scale. Substantial differences were found in the reduction of the impact of fibromyalgia after treatment and in the decrease in depressive symptoms decrease in the follow-up. A slight decrease was observed in intensity of pain in different body areas although there were no significant differences between the groups. The study findings suggest that depressive symptoms and the impact of the illness were reduced in the MBCT group of women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. These changes were maintained during the 3-month follow up. No significant changes were found in the reduction of intensity of pain. The limitations of this study were analysed and possible improvements for future research were considered.

Keywords

Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy Fibromyalgia Depression Pain 

References

  1. Aguglia, A., Salvi, V., Maina, G., Rossetto, I., & Aguglia, E. (2011). Fibromyalgia syndrome and depressive symptoms: Comorbility and clinical correlates. Journal of Affective Disorders, 128, 262–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alok, R., Das, S., Agarwal, G., Salwahan, L., & Srivastava, R. (2011). Relationship of severity of depression, anxiety and stress with severity of fibromyalgia. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 29(Suppl 69), 70–72.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4 Ed.) Washington, DC, EE UU: APA.Google Scholar
  4. Aparicio, M., Ramos-Cejudo, J., Salguero, J., & Sanz-Blasco, R. (2011). Ansiedad rasgo y salud autoinformada como variables predictoras de la atención médica en población española. Ansiedad y Estrés, 17, 125–136.Google Scholar
  5. Baer, R. (2003). Mindfulness training as a clinical intervention: A conceptual and empirical review. Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice, 10(2), 125–143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Baer, R. (2006). Mindfulness-based treatment approaches. clinician’s guide to evidence base and applications. San Diego: Elsevier.Google Scholar
  7. Bartels, E. M., Dreyer, L., Jacobsen, S., Jespersen, A., Bliddal, H., & Danneskiold-Samsøe, B. (2009). Fibromyalgia, diagnosis and prevalence. Are gender differences explainable? Ugeskrift for Laeger, 171(49), 3588–3592.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Beck, A. T., Rush, A., Shaw, B. F., & Emery, G. (1979). Cognitive therapy of depression. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, R. (2005). The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire (FIQ): A review of its development, current version, operating characteristics and uses [Supplement]. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 23, 154–162.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, R., Bushmakin, A., Cappelleri, J., Zlateva, G., & Sadosky, A. (2009). Minimal clinically important difference in the fibromyalgia impact questionnaire. The Journal of Rheumatology, 36(6), 1304–1311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bernard, A., Prince, A., & Edsall, P. (2000). Quality of life issues for fibromyalgia patients. Arthritis Care & Research, 13, 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bohlmeijer, E., Prenger, R., Taal, E., & Cuijpers, P. (2010). The effects of mindfulness-based stress reduction therapy on mental health of adults with a chronic medical disease: A meta-analysis. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 539–544.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Borenstein, M., Rothstein, H., & Cohen, J. (2001). Sample Power 2.0. Chicago: SPSS Inc.Google Scholar
  14. Branco, J. C., Bannwarth, B., Failde, I., Carbonell, J., Blotman, F., Spaeth, M., et al. (2010). Prevalence of fibromyalgia: A survey in five European Countries. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 39(6), 448–453.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brosschot, J. F., & Aarsse, H. R. (2001). Restricted emotional processing and somatic attribution in fibromyalgia. International Journal of Psychiatric Medicine, 31, 127–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Brown, K., Ryan, R., & Creswell, J. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical foundations and evidence for its salutary effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burckhardt, C. S. (2006). Multidisciplinary approaches for management of fibromyalgia. Current Pharmaceutical Design, 12, 59–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Burckhardt, C., Clark, S., & Bennett, R. (1991). The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: Development and validation. The Journal of Rheumatology, 18(5), 728–733.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2010). Mindfulness based cognitive therapy for major depression: A systematic review and meta-analysis. European Psychiatry, 25(3), 1045.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2011). Mindfulness-based interventions for chronic pain: A systematic review of the evidence. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(1), 83–93.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coelho, H. F., Canter, P. H., & Ernst, E. (2007). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy: Evaluating current evidence and informing future research. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(6), 1000–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Cusens, B., Duggan, G. B., Thorne, K., & Burch, V. (2010). Evaluation of the breathworks mindfulness-based pain management programme: effects on well-being and multiple measures of mindfulness. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 17(1), 63–78.Google Scholar
  24. De Miquel, C., García-Campayo, J., Tomás-Flórez, M., Gómez-Arguelles, J., Blanco-Tarrio, E., Gobbo-Montoya, M., et al. (2010). Documento de Consenso interdisciplinar para el tratamiento de la fibromialgia. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 38(2), 108–120.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Devilly, G. J. (2004a). Random Number Generator: Version 1.0 [computer programme]. Swinburne University, Australia: Centre for Neuropsychology.Google Scholar
  26. Devilly, G. J. (2004b). The Effect Size Generator for Windows: Version 2.3 [computer programme]. Swinburne University, Australia: Centre for Neuropsychology.Google Scholar
  27. Eich, W., Häuser, W., Friedel, E., Klement, A., Herrmann, M., Petzke, F., et al. (2008). Definition, classification and diagnosis of fibromyalgia syndrome. Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie, 67(8), 665–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ellis, A. (1962). Reason and emotion in psychotherapy. New York: Lyle Stewart.Google Scholar
  29. Epstein, S., Kay, G., Clauw, D., Heaton, R., Klein, D., Krupp, L., et al. (1999). Psychiatric disorders in patients with fibromyalgia: A multicenter investigation. Psychosomatics, 40(1), 57–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Evans, D., & Segerstrom, S. (2011). Why do mindful people worry less? Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35(6), 505–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Evers, A. W. M., Kraaimaat, F. W., van Lankveld, W., Jongen, P. J. H., Jacobs, J. W. G., & Bijisma, J. W. J. (2001). Beyond unfavourable thinking: The illness cognition questionnaire for chronic diseases. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 1026–1103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ferrando, L., Bobes, J., Gibert, J., & Lecrubier, Y. (1997). Instrumentos de detección y orientación diagnóstica. In J. Bobes, M. P. González, M. T. Bascarán, A. Sáiz, & M. Bousoño (Eds.), Banco de instrumentos básicos para la práctica de la psiquiátrica clínica (pp. 2–26). Barcelona: Ars Médica.Google Scholar
  33. Fietta, P., Fietta, P., & Manganelli, P. (2007). Fibromyalgia and psychiatric disorders. Acta Biomédica, 78, 88–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Fitzpatrick, L., Simpson, J., & Smith, A. (2010). A qualitative analysis of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) in Parkinson’s disease. Psychology and Psychotheraphy, 83(2), 179–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fjorback, L. O., Arendt, M. M., Ørnbøl, E. E., Fink, P. P., & Walach, H. H. (2011). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy—a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 124(2), 102–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Foley, E., Huxter, A., Baillie, M., Price, M., & Sinclair, E. (2010). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for individuals whose lives have been affected by cancer: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(1), 72–79.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Franco, C., Mañas, I., & Justo, E. (2010). Mejora en algunas dimensiones de salud percibida en pacientes con fibromialgia mediante la aplicación de un programa de meditación mindfulness. Psychology, Society & Education, 2, 117–130.Google Scholar
  38. Geoffroy, P., Amad, A., Gangloff, C., & Thomas, P. (2012). Fibromyalgia and psychiatry: 35 years later… what’s new? Presse Médicale, 41(5), 455–465.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Geschwind, N., Peeters, F., Huibers, M., van Os, J., & Wichers, M. (2012). Efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in relation to prior history of depression: Randomised controlled trial. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 201, 320–325.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giesecke, T., Williams, D., Harris, R., Cupps, T., Tian, X., Tian, T., et al. (2003). Subgrouping of fibromyalgia patients on the basis of pressure-pain thresholds and psychological factors. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 48(10), 2916–2922.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gilbert, B., & Christopher, M. (2010). Mindfulness-based attention as a moderator of the relationship between depressive affect and negative cognitions. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 34(6), 514–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Glombiewski, J., Sawyer, A., Gutermann, J., Koenig, K., Rief, W., & Hofmann, S. G. (2010). Psychological treatments for fibromyalgia: A meta-analysis. Pain, 151, 280–295.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. González, V., Stewart, A., Ritter, P., & Lorig, K. (1995). Translation and validation of arthritis outcome measures into Spanish. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38, 1429–1446.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. González, E., Elorza, J., & Failde, I. (2010). Fibromyalgia and psychiatric comorbidity: Their effect on the quality of life patients. Actas Españolas de Psiquiatría, 38(5), 295–300.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Grossman, P., Tiefenthaler-Gilmer, U., Raysz, A., & Kesper, U. (2007). Mindfulness training as an intervention for fibromyalgia: Evidence of postintervention and 3-year follow-up benefits in well-being. Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 76, 226–233.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Häuser, W., Thieme, K., & Turk, D. (2010). Guidelines on the management of fibromyalgia syndrome—a systematic review. European Journal of Pain, 14(1), 5–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hayes, S. C. (2004). Acceptance and commitment therapy, relational frame theory, and the third wave of behaviorial and cognitive therapies. Behaviour Therapy, 35, 639–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hoffman, D., & Dukes, E. (2008). The health status burden of people with fibromyalgia: A review of studies that assessed health status with the SF-36 or the SF-12. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 62(1), 115–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Hofmann, S. G., Sawyer, A. T., Witt, A. A., & Oh, D. (2010). The effect of mindfulness-based therapy on anxiety and depression: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 78(2), 169–183.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Huskisson, E. C. (1974). Measurement of pain. The Lancet, 2, 1127–1131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1982). An outpatient program in behavioral medicine for chronic pain patients based on the practice of mindfulness meditation: Theoretical considerations and preliminary results. General Hospital Psychiatry, 4, 33–47.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Kabat-Zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to face stress, pain, and illness. New York: Dell Publishing.Google Scholar
  53. Kabat-Zinn, J., Lipworth, L., & Burney, R. (1985). The clinical use of mindfulness meditation for the self-regulation of chronic pain. Journal of Behaviorial Medicine, 8(2), 163–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Kaplan, K. H., Goldenberg, D. L., & Galvin-Nadeau, M. (1993). The impact of a meditation-based stress reduction program on fibromyalgia. General Hospital Psychiatry, 15, 284–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Kumar, S., Feldman, G., & Hayes, A. (2008). Changes in mindfulness and emotion regulation in an exposure-based cognitive therapy for depression. Cognitive Therapy & Research, 32(6), 734–744.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Kuyken, W., Watkins, E., Holden, E., White, K., Taylor, R. S., Byford, S., et al. (2010). How does mindfulness-based cognitive therapy work? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 48(11), 1105–1112.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Lush, E., Salmon, P., Floyd, A., Studts, J., & Weissbecker, I. (2009). Mindfulness meditation for symptom reduction in fibromyalgia: Psychophysiological correlates. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 16, 200–207.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Ma, S., & Teasdale, J. D. (2004). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: Replication and exploration of differential relapse prevention effects. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 72(1), 31–40.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Marchand, W. R. (2012). Mindfulness-based stress reduction, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy, and Zen meditation for depression, anxiety, pain, and psychological distress. Journal of Psychiatric Practice, 18(4), 233–252.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Maxwell, S. E., & Delaney, H. D. (2004). Introduction to model comparisons: One-way between subjects designs. In S. E. Maxwell & H. D. Delaney (Eds.), Designing experiments and analyzing date (pp. 67–148). New Jersey: LEA.Google Scholar
  61. McCracken, L. M. (1998). Learning to live with the pain: acceptance of pain predicts adjustment in person with chronic pain. Pain, 74(1), 21–27.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McCracken, L. M., & Eccleston, C. (2005). A prospective study of acceptance of pain and patient functioning with chronic pain. Pain, 118, 164–169.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McCracken, L. M., & Thompson, M. (2009). Components of Mindfulness in patients with chronic pain. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 31, 75–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Merkes, M. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for people with chronic diseases. Australian Journal of Primary Health, 16, 200–210.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Michalak, J., Heidenreich, T., Meibert, P., & Schulte, D. (2008). Mindfulness predicts relapse/recurrence in major depressive disorder after mindfulness-based cognitive therapy. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 196(8), 630–633.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Miró, J. (2003). Instrumentos para la evaluación de la experiencia de dolor crónico en adultos. In T. Gutiérrez, R. M. Raich, D. Sánchez, & J. Deus (Eds.), Instrumentos de evaluación en psicología de la salud. Madrid: Alianza Editorial.Google Scholar
  67. Miró, M. T., Perestelo, L., Pérez, J., Rivero, A., González, M., De la Fuente, J. A., et al. (2011). Eficacia de los tratamientos psicológicos basados en mindfulness para los trastornos de ansiedad y depresión: una revisión sistemática. Revista de Psicopatología y Psicología Clínica, 16, 1–16.Google Scholar
  68. Neumann, L., & Buskila, D. (1997). Quality of life and physical functioning of relatives of fibromyalgia patients. Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism, 26, 834–839.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Parra, M., Latorre, J. M., & Montañés, J. (2012). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy and reduction of anxiety symptoms in people with fibromyalgia. Anxiety & Stress, 18(2–3), 141–154.Google Scholar
  70. Quintana, M., & Rincón, F. M. (2011). Eficacia del entrenamiento en mindfulness para pacientes con fibromialgia. Clinica y Salud, 22, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Raes, F., & Williams, J. G. (2010). The relationship between mindfulness and uncontrollability of ruminative thinking. Mindfulness, 1(4), 199–203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Raphael, K., Janal, M., Nayak, S., Schwartz, J., & Gallagher, R. (2006). Psychiatric comorbidities in a community sample of women with fibromyalgia. Pain, 124(1–2), 117–125.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reisine, S., Fifield, J., Walsh, S., & Feinn, R. (2003). Do employment and family work affect the health status of women with fibromyalgia? Journal of Rheumatology, 30, 2045–2053.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Rivera, J., & González, T. (2004). The fibromyalgia impact questionnaire: a validated Spanish version to assess the health status in women with fibromyalgia. Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, 22(5), 554–560.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Rosenzweig, S., Greeson, J., Reibel, D., Green, J., Jasser, S., & Beasley, D. (2010). Mindfulness-based stress reduction for chronic pain conditions: Variation in treatment outcomes and role of home meditation practice. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 68, 29–36.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Rudd, M., & Rajab, M. (1995). Specificity of the beck depression inventory and the confounding role of comorbid disorders in a clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(1), 51–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Sanz, J., & Vazquez, C. (1998). Fiabilidad, validez y datos normativos del inventario para la depresión de Beck. Psicothema, 10(2), 303–318.Google Scholar
  78. Sanz, J., & Vázquez, C. (1998). El Inventario para la Depresión de Beck (BDI) como instrumento para identificar sujetos deprimidos y no deprimidos en la investigación psicopatológica: Fiabilidad, validez y datos normativos en muestras universitarias. Psicothema, 10, 303–318.Google Scholar
  79. Schmidt, S., Grossman, P., Schwarzer, B., Jena, S., Naumann, J., & Walach, H. (2011). Treating fibromyalgia with mindfulness-based stress reduction: Results from a 3-armed randomized controlled trial. Pain, 152, 361–369.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Schütze, R., Rees, C., Preece, M., & Schütze, M. (2010). Low mindfulness predicts pain catastrophizing in a fear-avoidance model of chronic pain. Pain, 148(1), 120–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Segal, Z. V., Williams, J. M., & Teasdale, J. D. (2002). Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression: A new approach for preventing relapse. New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  82. Sephton, S., Salmon, P., Weissbecker, I., Ulmer, C., Floyd, A., Hoover, K., et al. (2007). Mindfulness meditation alleviates depressive symptoms in women with fibromyalgia: Results of a randomized clinical trial. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 57, 77–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Serrano-Atero, M. S., Caballero, J., Cañas, A., García-Saura, P. L., Serrano-Álvarez, C., & Prieto, J. (2002). Valoración del dolor (I). Revista de la Sociedad Española del Dolor, 9(2), 94–108.Google Scholar
  84. Sheehan, D. V., Lecrubier, Y. Y., Sheehan, K., Janavs, J. J., Weiller, E. E., Keskiner, A. A., et al. (1997). The validity of the mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI) according to the SCID-P and its reliability. European Psychiatry, 12, 232–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Sicras-Mainar, A., Blanca-Tamayo, M., Navarro-Artieda, R., & Rejas-Gutiérrez, J. (2009). Use of resources and costs profile in patients with fibromyalgia or generalized anxiety disorder in primary care settings. Atencion Primaria, 41(2), 77–84.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Söderberg, S., Lundman, B., & Norberg, A. (1999). Struggling for dignity: The meaning of women’s experience of living with fibromyalgia. Qualitative Health Research, 9(5), 575–587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. W., Gibbon, M., & First, M. B. (1990). Structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R, patient edition/non-patient edition, (SCID-P/SCID-NP). Washington.: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  88. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z., & Williams, J. M. (1995). How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33(1), 25–39.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Thieme, K., & Gracely, R. (2009). Are psychological treatments effective for fibromyalgia pain? Current Rheumatology Reports, 11(6), 443–450.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Thieme, K., Turk, D., & Flor, H. (2004). Comorbid depression and anxiety in fibromyalgia syndrome: Relationship to somatic and psychosocial variables. Psychosomatic Medicine, 66, 837–844.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Thieme, K., Häuser, W., Batra, A., Bernardy, K., Felde, E., Gesmann, M., et al. (2008). Psychotherapy in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Schmerz, 22(3), 295–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Tornero, J., Piqueras, J. A., Carballo, L. F., & Vidal, J. (2002). Epidemiología de la discapacidad laboral debida a las enfermedades reumáticas. Revista Española de Reumatología, 29, 373–384.Google Scholar
  93. Vago, D. R., & Nakamura, Y. (2011). Selective attentional bias towards pain-related threat in fibromyalgia: Preliminary evidence for effects of mindfulness meditation training. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 581–594.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. van Aalderen, J. R., Donders, A. T., Giommi, F. F., Spinhoven, P. P., Barendregt, H. P., & Speckens, A. M. (2012). The efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy in recurrent depressed patients with and without a current depressive episode: A randomized controlled trial. Psychological Medicine, 42(5), 989–1001.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. van Middendorp, H., Lumley, M., Jacobs, J., van Doornen, L., Bijlsma, J., & Geenen, R. (2008). Emotions and emotional approach and avoidance strategies in fibromyalgia. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 64(2), 159–167.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Vishne, T., Fostick, L., Silberman, A., Kupchick, M., Rubinow, A., Amital, H., et al. (2008). Fibromyalgia among major depression disorder females compared to males. Rheumatology International, 28(9), 831–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Weissbecker, I., Salmon, P., Studts, J., Floyd, A., Dedert, E., & Sephton, S. (2002). Mindfulness-based stress reduction and sense of coherence among women with fibromyalgia. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 9(4), 297–307.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Wierwille, L. (2012). Fibromyalgia: diagnosing and managing a complex syndrome. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 24(4), 184–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Wilson, H., Robinson, J., & Turk, D. (2009). Toward the identification of symptom patterns in people with fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 61(4), 527–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Wolfe, F., Smythe, H. A., Yunus, M. B., Bennet, R. M., Bombardier, C., Goldenberg, D. L., et al. (1990). The American college of rheumatology 1990. Criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia. Report of the multicenter criteria committee. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 33, 160–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Wolfe, F., Ross, K., Anderson, J., Russell, I., & Hebert, L. (1995). The prevalence and characteristics of fibromyalgia in the general population. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 38(1), 19–28.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Wolfe, F., Anderson, J., Harkness, D., Bennett, R. M., Caro, X. J., Goldenberg, D. L., et al. (1997). A prospective, longitudinal, multicenter study of service utilization and costs in fibromyalgia. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 40, 1560–1570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Wolfe, F., Clauw, D., Fitzcharles, M., Goldenberg, D., Katz, R., Mease, P., et al. (2010). The American college of rheumatology preliminary diagnostic criteria for fibromyalgia and measurement of symptom severity. Arthritis Care & Research, 62(5), 600–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Yunus, M. B. (2002). Gender differences in fibromyalgia and other related syndromes. Journal of Gender-Specific Medicine, 5(2), 42–47.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marta Parra-Delgado
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • José Miguel Latorre-Postigo
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Castilla-La ManchaAlbaceteSpain
  2. 2.Applied Cognitive Psychology UnitNeurological Disabilities Research InstituteAlbaceteSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de PsicologíaFacultad de EducaciónAlbaceteSpain

Personalised recommendations