Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 37, Issue 3, pp 421–433 | Cite as

Tolerance of Negative Affective States (TNAS): Development and Evaluation of a Novel Construct and Measure

  • Amit Bernstein
  • Hadas Brantz
Original Article


The purpose of the present research was to develop and evaluate a novel conceptual model and measure of Tolerance of Negative Affective States (TNAS). Exploratory factor and parallel analyses and subsequent confirmatory factor analyses supported a hierarchical multi-dimensional model of TNAS. We observed one higher-order factor, labeled Tolerance of Negative Emotions, and six lower-order factors, including, FI Tolerance of Fear-Distress, FII Tolerance of Sadness-Depression, FIII Tolerance of Anger, FIV Tolerance of Disgust, FV Tolerance of Anxious-Apprehension, and FVI Tolerance of Negative Social Emotions. A series of tests documented that TNASS sub-scale scores demonstrate internal consistency as well as convergent and discriminant validity. We discuss the findings with respect to understanding the nature of the emergent TNAS construct and its measurement.


Distress tolerance Assessment 



Dr. Bernstein recognizes the funding support from the Israeli Council for Higher Education Yigal Alon Fellowship, the European Union FP-7 Marie Curie Fellowship International Reintegration Grant, the Israel Science Foundation, the National Institute on Drug Abuse Clinical LRP, Psychology Beyond Borders Mission Award, the University of Haifa Research Authority, and the Rothschild-Caesarea Foundation’s Returning Scientists Project at the University of Haifa.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HaifaHaifaIsrael

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