Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 634–642 | Cite as

Mood Regulation and Cognitive Reactivity in Depression Vulnerability

  • Timo BrockmeyerEmail author
  • Nils Pfeiffer
  • Martin Grosse Holtforth
  • Johannes Zimmermann
  • Annette Kämmerer
  • Hans-Christoph Friederich
  • Hinrich Bents
Original Article

Abstract

There is substantial evidence supporting the hypothesis that cognitive reactivity is an important variable in the etiology of depression. However, there is a lack of studies examining possible mechanisms that underlie cognitive reactivity. The present study tested whether two specific mood regulation processes differentially appear in vulnerable and non-vulnerable individuals, and whether they can account for differences in cognitive reactivity. In a cross-sectional experimental design, 20 formerly-depressed individuals (FD) were compared with 20 never-depressed individuals (ND). In an autobiographical memory task both groups differed concerning the use of positively and negatively toned emotion words: FD retrieved fewer positive emotion words than ND in the second phase of this task. Furthermore, FD with a high cognitive reactivity retrieved more negatively toned emotion words. In the ND group there was a different pattern: Subjects with a high cognitive reactivity retrieved less positively toned emotion words. Two different cognitive processes seem to account for cognitive reactivity in individuals who are at high versus low risk for depression.

Keywords

Depression Vulnerability Emotion regulation Mood regulation Cognitive reactivity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The first author was supported by a doctoral grant from the Centre for Psychological Psychotherapy of the University of Heidelberg. The third author was supported by a grant from the Swiss National Science Foundation.

References

  1. Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Alloy, L. B. (1989). Hopelessness depression: A theory-based subtype of depression. Psychological Review, 96(2), 358–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar
  3. Bagby, R. M., Ryder, A. G., Schuller, D. R., & Marshall, M. B. (2004). The hamilton depression rating scale: Has the gold standard become a lead weight? The American Journal of Psychiatry, 161(12), 2163–2177.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia, PA: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Manual for the BDI-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  6. Beevers, C. G., Ellis, A. J., & Reid, R. M. (2011). Heart rate variability predicts cognitive reactivity to a sad mood provocation. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 35, 395–403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beevers, C. G., Scott, W. D., McGeary, C., & McGeary, J. E. (2009). Negative cognitive response to a sad mood induction: Associations with polymorphisms of the serotonin transporter (5-HTTLPR) gene. Cognition and Emotion, 23(4), 726–738.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blaney, P. H. (1986). Affect and memory: A review. Psychological Bulletin, 99(2), 229–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bower, G. H. (1981). Mood and memory. American Psychologist, 36(2), 129–148.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brewin, C. R., Wheatley, J., Patel, T., Fearon, P., Hackmann, A., Wells, A., et al. (2009). Imagery rescripting as a brief stand-alone treatment for depressed patients with intrusive memories. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(7), 569–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caseras, X., Garner, M., Bradley, B. P., & Mogg, K. (2007). Biases in visual orienting to negative and positive scenes in dysphoria: An eye movement study. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(3), 491–497.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, J., Cohen, P., West, S. G., & Aiken, L. S. (2003). Applied multiple regression/correlation analysis for the behavioral sciences (3rd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.Google Scholar
  13. Compton, R. J. (2000). Ability to disengage attention predicts negative affect. Cognition and Emotion, 14(3), 401–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dozois, D. J. A., Dobson, K. S., & Ahnberg, J. L. (1998). A psychometric evaluation of the beck depression inventory—II. Psychological Assessment, 10(2), 83–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ehring, T., Fischer, S., Schnülle, J., Bösterling, A., & Tuschen-Caffier, B. (2008). Characteristics of emotion regulation in recovered depressed versus never depressed individuals. Personality and Individual Differences, 44(7), 1574–1584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ehring, T., Tuschen-Caffier, B., Schnülle, J., Fischer, S., & Gross, J. J. (2010). Emotion regulation and vulnerability to depression: Spontaneous versus instructed use of emotion suppression and reappraisal. Emotion, 10(4), 563–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Eizenman, M., Yu, L. H., Grupp, L., Eizenman, E., Ellenbogen, M., Gemar, M., et al. (2003). A naturalistic visual scanning approach to assess selective attention in major depressive disorder. Psychiatry Research, 118(2), 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ellenbogen, M. A., Schwartzman, A. E., Stewart, J., & Walker, C.-D. (2002). Stress and selective attention: The interplay of mood, cortisol levels, and emotional information processing. Psychophysiology, 39(6), 723–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Erber, R., & Markunas, S. (2006). Managing affective states. In J. P. Forgas (Ed.), Affect in social thinking and behavior (pp. 253–266). New York, NY: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  20. Erber, R., Wegner, D. M., & Therriault, N. (1996). On being cool and collected: Mood regulation in anticipation of social interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(4), 757–766.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Feldman, G., Harley, R., Kerrigan, M., Jacobo, M., & Fava, M. (2009). Change in emotional processing during a dialectical behavior therapy-based skills group for major depressive disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47(4), 316–321.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Fiedler, K., Nickel, S., Asbeck, J., & Pagel, U. (2003). Mood and the generation effect. Cognition and Emotion, 17(4), 585–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117(1), 39–66.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Forgas, J. P., & Ciarrochi, J. V. (2002). On managing moods: Evidence for the role of homeostatic cognitive strategies in affect regulation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(3), 336–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Frank, E., Prien, R. F., Jarrett, R. B., & Keller, M. B. (1991). Conceptualization and rationale for consensus definitions of terms in major depressive disorder: Remission, recovery, relapse, and recurrence. Archives of General Psychiatry, 48(9), 851–855.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Gemar, M. C., Segal, Z. V., Sagrati, S., & Kennedy, S. J. (2001). Mood-induced changes on the implicit association test in recovered depressed patients. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110(2), 282–289.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Gotlib, I. H., & Cane, D. B. (1987). Construct accessibility and clinical depression: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 96(3), 199–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Grosse Holtforth, M., Wilm, K., Hayes, A., Sutter, M., Schmied, E., & Caspar, F. (submitted). Examining the role of emotional processing in the treatment of depression: A preliminary investigation in exposure-based cognitive therapy (EBCT).Google Scholar
  29. Hamilton, M. (1960). A rating scale for depression. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery and Psychiatry, 23, 56–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Hayes, A. M., Feldman, G. C., Beevers, C. G., Laurenceau, J.-P., Cardaciotto, L., & Lewis-Smith, J. (2007). Discontinuities and cognitive changes in an exposure-based cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75(3), 409–421.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Hollon, S. D., Kendall, P. C., & Lumry, A. (1986). Specificity of depressotypic cognitions in clinical depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 95(1), 52–59.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Ingram, R. E. (1984). Toward an information-processing analysis of depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 8(5), 443–477.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Ingram, R. E., Bernet, C. Z., & McLaughlin, S. C. (1994). Attentional allocation processes in individuals at risk for depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 18(4), 317–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ingram, R. E., Miranda, J., & Segal, Z. V. (1998). Cognitive vulnerability to depression. New York, NY: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  35. Joormann, J., & Siemer, M. (2004). Memory accessibility, mood regulation, and dysphoria: Difficulties in repairing sad mood with happy memories? Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(2), 179–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Joormann, J., Siemer, M., & Gotlib, I. H. (2007). Mood regulation in depression: Differential effects of distraction and recall of happy memories on sad mood. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 116(3), 484–490.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Josephson, B. R., Singer, J. A., & Salovey, P. (1996). Mood regulation and memory: Repairing sad moods with happy memories. Cognition and Emotion, 10(4), 437–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Just, N., Abramson, L. Y., & Alloy, L. B. (2001). Remitted depression studies as tests of the cognitive vulnerability hypotheses of depression onset: A critique and conceptual analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 21(1), 63–83.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Koster, E. H. W., De Raedt, R., Goeleven, E., Franck, E., & Crombez, G. (2005). Mood-congruent attentional bias in dysphoria: Maintained attention to and impaired disengagement from negative information. Emotion, 5(4), 446–455.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Maladaptive cognitive structures in depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 135(5), 525–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Krohne, H. W., Egloff, B., Kohlmann, C.-W., & Tausch, A. (1996). Untersuchungen mit einer deutschen Version der ‘Positive and Negative Affect Schedule’ (PANAS) [Investigations with a German version of the positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS)]. Diagnostica, 42(2), 139–156.Google Scholar
  42. Kühner, C., Bürger, C., Keller, F., & Hautzinger, M. (2007). Reliabilität und Validität des revidierten Beck-Depressions-inventars (BDI-II). Befunde aus deutschsprachigen Stichproben. [Reliability and validity of the Revised Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-II). Results from German samples.] Der Nervenarzt, 78(6), 651–656.Google Scholar
  43. Martin, M. (1990). On the induction of mood. Clinical Psychology Review, 10(6), 669–697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mergenthaler, E. (1993). TAS/C user manual. Ulm: Ulmer Textbank.Google Scholar
  45. Mergenthaler, E. (1996). Emotion—Abstraction patterns in verbatim protocols: A new way of describing psychotherapeutic processes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(6), 1306–1315.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Miranda, J., Persons, J. B., & Byers, C. N. (1990). Endorsement of dysfunctional beliefs depends on current mood state. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 99(3), 237–241.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pfeiffer, N., Kaemmerer, A., Mearns, J., Catanzaro, S. J., & Backenstrass, M. (2011). Generalized expectancies for negative mood regulation and major depressive disorder: The role of previous depressive episodes and comorbid mental disorders. Psychopathology, 44(3), 152–157.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Rude, S. S., Wenzlaff, R. M., Gibbs, B., Vane, J., & Whitney, T. (2002). Negative processing biases predict subsequent depressive symptoms. Cognition and Emotion, 16(3), 423–440.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Scher, C. D., Ingram, R. E., & Segal, Z. V. (2005). Cognitive reactivity and vulnerability: Empirical evaluation of construct activation and cognitive diatheses in unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 25(4), 487–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Sedikides, C. (1994). Incongruent effects of sad mood on self-conception valence: It’s a matter of time. European Journal of Social Psychology, 24(1), 161–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Segal, Z. V., Gemar, M., & Williams, S. (1999). Differential cognitive response to a mood challenge following successful cognitive therapy or pharmacotherapy for unipolar depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108(1), 3–10.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Segal, Z. V., & Ingram, R. E. (1994). Mood priming and construct activation in tests of cognitive vulnerability to unipolar depression. Clinical Psychology Review, 14(7), 663–695.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Segal, Z. V., Kennedy, S., Gemar, M., Hood, K., Pedersen, R., & Buis, T. (2006). Cognitive reactivity to sad mood provocation and the prediction of depressive relapse. Archives of General Psychiatry, 63(7), 749–755.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Silverman, J. S., Silverman, J. A., & Eardley, D. A. (1984). Do maladaptive attitudes cause depression? Archives of General Psychiatry, 41(1), 28–30.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Cognitive vulnerability to persistent depression. Cognition and Emotion, 2(3), 247–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wadlinger, H. A., & Isaacowitz, D. M. (2011). Fixing our focus: Training attention to regulate emotion. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 15(1), 75–102.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Watkins, E. R., & Moulds, M. (2007). Revealing negative thinking in recovered major depression: A preliminary investigation. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 45(12), 3069–3076.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063–1070.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Wenzlaff, R. M., & Bates, D. E. (1998). Unmasking a cognitive vulnerability to depression: How lapses in mental control reveal depressive thinking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 75(6), 1559–1571.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Wilkinson, I. M., & Blackburn, I. M. (1981). Cognitive style in depressed and recovered depressed patients. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 20(4), 283–292.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Wittchen, H. U., Zaudig, M., & Fydrich, T. (1997). Structural clinical interview for DSM-IV (SKID-I and SKID-II) [in German]. Hogrefe: Göttingen.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Timo Brockmeyer
    • 1
    • 5
    Email author
  • Nils Pfeiffer
    • 2
  • Martin Grosse Holtforth
    • 3
  • Johannes Zimmermann
    • 4
  • Annette Kämmerer
    • 6
  • Hans-Christoph Friederich
    • 1
  • Hinrich Bents
    • 5
  1. 1.Department of General Internal Medicine and Psychosomatics, Centre for Psychosocial MedicineUniversity Hospital HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  2. 2.Schön Klinik RoseneckPrien am ChiemseeGermany
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of ZurichZürichSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KasselKasselGermany
  5. 5.Centre for Psychological PsychotherapyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany
  6. 6.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HeidelbergHeidelbergGermany

Personalised recommendations