Emotion Regulation in Depression: Reflection Predicts Recovery from a Major Depressive Episode
- 683 Downloads
Little is known about the relation between individual differences in emotion regulation (ER) and the maintenance of clinical depression. This study examined whether frequency of use of four ER strategies (i.e., cognitive reappraisal, expressive suppression, reflection, and brooding) predicts recovery from a major depressive episode. At an initial appointment (Time 1), participants diagnosed with current major depressive disorder completed measures assessing symptom severity and use of ER strategies. Six months later (Time 2), participants were reassessed to determine diagnostic status (i.e., recovered or non-recovered). Results demonstrated that, after controlling for symptom severity, use of ER strategies predicted recovery status at Time 2. Specifically, use of reflection at Time 1 was a unique and significant predictor of greater chance for recovery. Results indicate that ER strategies may be utilized to predict long-term symptom maintenance and provide support for the proposition that reflection may be used adaptively among individuals diagnosed with depression.
KeywordsDepression Emotion regulation Rumination Reflection
- American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
- Beck, T. A., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996b). Manual for the beck depression inventory-II. San Antonio, TX: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bonanno, G. A., Papa, A., Lalande, K., Westphal, M., & Coifman, K. (2004). The importance of being flexible: The ability to both enhance and suppress emotional expression predicts long-term adjustment. Psychological Science, 15, 482–487. doi: 10.1111/j.0956-7976.2004.00705.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Campbell-Sills, L., & Barlow, D. H. (2007). Incorporating emotion regulation into conceptualizations and treatments of anxiety and mood disorders. In J. J. Gross (Ed.), Handbook of emotion regulation. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- First, M. B., Spitzer, R. L., Gibbon, M., & Williams, J. B. W. (2002). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV-TR axis I disorders, research version, patient edition (SCID-I/P). New York: Biometrics Research, New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
- Pearson, K. A., Watkins, E. R., Mullan, E. G., & Moberly, N. J. (2010). Psychosocial correlates of depressive rumination. Behaviour Research and Therapy. doi: 10.1016/j.brat.2010.05.007.