Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 227–231 | Cite as

Mastery Beliefs and Intraindividual Variability of Anxiety

  • Matthew W. Gallagher
  • Alexander M. Schoemann
  • Sarah D. Pressman
Brief Report

Abstract

Individual differences in perceived ability to exercise control have long been considered to be an important predictor of who develops mental illness, particularly anxiety disorders. Although numerous studies have demonstrated a link between mastery and anxiety, few studies have used longitudinal methods that allow for more sophisticated analyses and stronger conclusions. The present study examines how mastery beliefs determine vulnerability to anxiety by examining the longitudinal course of anxiety within a 13-day ecological momentary assessment period and a 14 weeks biweekly assessment period. Results demonstrated that mastery beliefs predict both lower levels of mean levels of anxiety across time and less intraindividual variability in anxiety within days. These results suggest that mastery beliefs may provide a protective buffer against the experience of anxiety.

Keywords

Mastery Anxiety Self-efficacy Vulnerability Variability 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Pascal Deboeck and Kris Preacher for helpful statistical advice and Sheldon Cohen for allowing use of the dataset.

References

  1. Arnau, R. C., Rosen, D. H., Finch, J. F., Rhudy, J. L., & Fortunato, V. J. (2007). Longitudinal effects of hope on anxiety and depression: A latent variable analysis. Journal of Personality, 75, 43–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (1988). Self-efficacy conception of anxiety. Anxiety, Stress, Coping, 1, 77–98.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A., Reese, L., & Adams, N. E. (1982). Microanalysis of action and fear arousal as a function of differential levels of perceived self-efficacy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 43, 5–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow, D. H. (2002). Anxiety and its disorders: The nature and treatment of anxiety and panic (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  7. Bates, D. (2005). Fitting linear mixed models in (R). R News, 5, 27–30.Google Scholar
  8. Cohen, S., & Lemay, E. P. (2007). Why would social networks be linked to affect and health practices? Health Psychology, 26, 410–417.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Deboeck, P. R., Montpetit, M. A., Bergeman, C. S., & Boker, S. M. (2009). Using derivative estimates to describe intraindividual variability at multiple time scales. Psychological Methods, 14, 367–386.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gallagher, M. W., & Lopez, S. J. (2009). Positive expectancies and positive mental health: Identifying the unique effects of hope and optimism. Journal of Positive Psychology, 4, 548–556.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Honaker, J., King, G., & Blackwell, M. (2008). AMELIA II (version 1.2) [computer software]. Available from http://gking.harvard.edu/amelia/.
  12. Judge, T. A., & Bono, J. E. (2001). Relationship of core self-evaluations traits—self-esteem, generalized self-efficacy, locus of control, and emotional stability—with job satisfaction and job performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 80–92.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Langer, E. (1975). The illusion of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 32, 311–328.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lopez, D. F., & Little, T. D. (1996). Children’s action-control beliefs and emotional regulation in the social domain. Developmental Psychology, 32, 299–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. McNair, D. M., Lorr, M., & Droppleman, L. F. (1971). Profile of Mood States Manual. San Diego, CA: Educational & Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
  16. Michael, S. T. (2000). Hope conquers fear: Overcoming anxiety and panic attacks. In C. R. Snyder (Ed.), Handbook of hope: Theory, measures, and applications (pp. 355–378). San Diego, CA: Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Multon, K. D., Brown, S. D., & Lent, R. W. (1991). Relation of self-efficacy beliefs to academic outcomes: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 38, 30–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Pearlin, L., Lieberman, M., Menaghan, E., & Mullan, J. (1982). The stress process. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 22, 337–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Peterson, C. (2000). The future of optimism. American Psychologist, 55, 44–55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Rodebaugh, T. L. (2006). Self-efficacy and social behavior. Behavior Research and Therapy, 44, 1831–1838.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Rotter, J. B. (1966). Generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. Psychological Monographs, 80 (Whole No. 609).Google Scholar
  22. Rubin, D. B. (1987). Multiple Imputation for Nonresponse in Surveys. New York: J. Wiley & Sons.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Selig, J. P. (2009). Time for a change? Reassessing the role of time in causal models. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. Lawrence: Department of Psychology, University of Kansas.Google Scholar
  24. Seligman, M. E. P. (1972). Learned helplessness. Annual Review of Medicine, 23, 407–412.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Seligman, M. E. P. (1998). Learned optimism: How to change your mind and your life (2nd ed.). New York: Pocket Books.Google Scholar
  26. Shiffman, S., Stone, A. S., & Hufford, M. R. (2008). Ecological momentary assessment. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 4, 1–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Skinner, E. A. (1996). A guide to constructs of control. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 549–570.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Smith, C. A., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1985). Patterns of cognitive appraisal in emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 813–838.Google Scholar
  29. Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13, 249–275.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Snyder, C. R., Harris, C., Anderson, J. R., Holleran, S. A., Irving, L. M., Sigmon, S. T., et al. (1991). The will and the ways: Development and validation of an individual-differences measure of hope. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 60, 570–585.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Snyder, C. R., Shorey, H. S., Cheavens, J., Pulvens, K. M., Adams, V. H., & Wiklund, C. (2002). Hope and academic success in college. Journal of Educational Psychology, 94, 820–826.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Taylor, S. E., Lerner, J. S., Sherman, D. K., Sage, R. M., & McDowell, N. K. (2003). Are self-enhancing cognitions associated with healthy or unhealthy biological profiles? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 605–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thompson, S. C. (1981). Will it hurt less if I can control it? A complex answer to a simple question. Psychological Bulletin, 90, 89–101.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Usala, P. D., & Hertzog, C. (1989). Measurement of affective states in adults: Evaluation of an adjective rating scale instrument. Research on Aging, 11, 403–426.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Matthew W. Gallagher
    • 1
  • Alexander M. Schoemann
    • 1
  • Sarah D. Pressman
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of KansasLawrenceUSA

Personalised recommendations