Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 94–102 | Cite as

Does Rumination Predict the Strength of Maladaptive Self-Beliefs Characteristic of Social Anxiety Over Time?

  • Quincy J. J. Wong
  • Michelle L. Moulds
Original Article


Two important components of the Clark and Wells (in Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Guilford, New York, pp 69–93, 1995) model of social phobia are ruminative processing and maladaptive self-beliefs (high standard, conditional and unconditional beliefs). In a longitudinal design, we hypothesised that rumination at Time 1 would be positively associated with the strength of each of the belief types at Time 2 (while controlling for depression, general anxiety, social anxiety and strength of belief types at Time 1). For our sample of undergraduates (N = 180), the average time between Time 1 and Time 2 was 8.84 days. Contrary to predictions, rumination at Time 1 was not uniquely related to the high standard beliefs at Time 2. Consistent with predictions, higher levels of rumination at Time 1 uniquely predicted stronger conditional and unconditional beliefs at Time 2. These results highlight the link between ruminative processing and specific maladaptive self-beliefs, and suggest that treatments of social phobia need to explicitly target rumination.


Social anxiety Rumination Maladaptive self-beliefs 



This study was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award to Quincy J. J. Wong, and received some additional support from a grant from the Australian Research Council (DP0666929) awarded to Michelle Moulds and Lisa Zadro. We would like to thank Helen Tang, Leigh Mellish and Emma Fabiansson for their assistance with the recruitment of participants. We would also like to thank Peter McEvoy and Alison Mahoney for giving us the opportunity to use the RTQ. Finally, we thank Sarah Certoma for helpful comments on this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

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