Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 36, Issue 1, pp 94–102 | Cite as

Does Rumination Predict the Strength of Maladaptive Self-Beliefs Characteristic of Social Anxiety Over Time?

  • Quincy J. J. Wong
  • Michelle L. Moulds
Original Article

Abstract

Two important components of the Clark and Wells (in Social phobia: diagnosis, assessment, and treatment. Guilford, New York, pp 69–93, 1995) model of social phobia are ruminative processing and maladaptive self-beliefs (high standard, conditional and unconditional beliefs). In a longitudinal design, we hypothesised that rumination at Time 1 would be positively associated with the strength of each of the belief types at Time 2 (while controlling for depression, general anxiety, social anxiety and strength of belief types at Time 1). For our sample of undergraduates (N = 180), the average time between Time 1 and Time 2 was 8.84 days. Contrary to predictions, rumination at Time 1 was not uniquely related to the high standard beliefs at Time 2. Consistent with predictions, higher levels of rumination at Time 1 uniquely predicted stronger conditional and unconditional beliefs at Time 2. These results highlight the link between ruminative processing and specific maladaptive self-beliefs, and suggest that treatments of social phobia need to explicitly target rumination.

Keywords

Social anxiety Rumination Maladaptive self-beliefs 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by an Australian Postgraduate Award to Quincy J. J. Wong, and received some additional support from a grant from the Australian Research Council (DP0666929) awarded to Michelle Moulds and Lisa Zadro. We would like to thank Helen Tang, Leigh Mellish and Emma Fabiansson for their assistance with the recruitment of participants. We would also like to thank Peter McEvoy and Alison Mahoney for giving us the opportunity to use the RTQ. Finally, we thank Sarah Certoma for helpful comments on this paper.

References

  1. Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2004). Post-event rumination and negative self-appraisal in social phobia before and after treatment. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113, 136–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beazley, M. B., Glass, C. R., Chambless, D. L., & Arnkoff, D. B. (2001). Cognitive self-statements in social phobia: A comparison across three types of social situations. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25, 781–799.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Clark, D. M., Ehlers, A., McManus, F., Hackmann, A., Fennell, M., Campbell, H., et al. (2003). Cognitive therapy versus fluoxetine in generalized social phobia: A randomized placebo-controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 1058–1067.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clark, D. M., & Wells, A. (1995). A cognitive model of social phobia. In R. G. Heimberg, M. R. Liebowitz, D. A. Hope, & F. R. Schneier (Eds.), Social phobia: Diagnosis, assessment, and treatment (pp. 69–93). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  5. Dent, J., & Teasdale, J. D. (1988). Negative cognition and the persistence of depression. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 97, 29–34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fergus, T. A., Valentiner, D. P., Kim, H. S., & Stephenson, K. (2009). The social thoughts and beliefs scale: Psychometric properties and its relation with interpersonal functioning in a non-clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 33, 425–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hirsch, C. R., & Clark, D. M. (2004). Information-processing bias in social phobia. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 799–825.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirsch, C. R., Clark, D. M., & Mathews, A. (2006). Imagery and interpretations in social phobia: Support for the combined cognitive biases hypothesis. Behavior Therapy, 37, 223–236.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kovacs, M., & Beck, A. T. (1978). Maladaptive cognitive structures in depression. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 135, 525–533.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety and stress scales (2nd ed.). Sydney: Psychological Foundation.Google Scholar
  11. Lundh, L. G., & Sperling, M. (2002). Social anxiety and the post-event processing of socially distressing events. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy, 31, 129–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Martin, L. L., Tesser, A., & McIntosh, W. D. (1993). Wanting but not having: The effects of unattained goals on thoughts and feelings. In D. M. Wegner & J. W. Pennebaker (Eds.), Handbook of mental control (pp. 552–572). Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  13. Mattick, R. P., & Clarke, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia scrutiny fear and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. McEvoy, P., Mahoney, A., & Moulds, M. L. (2010). Development of the repetitive thinking questionnaire: Are worry, rumination, and post-event processing one and the same? Journal of Anxiety Disorders (in press). Google Scholar
  15. McEvoy, P. M., Mahoney, A., Perini, S. J., & Kingsep, P. (2009). Changes in post-event processing and metacognitions during cognitive behavioural group therapy for social phobia. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 23, 617–623.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Perini, S. J., Abbott, M. J., & Rapee, R. M. (2006). Perception of performance as a mediator in the relationship between social anxiety and negative post-event rumination. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 30, 645–659.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Rachman, S., Grüter-Andrew, J., & Shafran, R. (2000). Post-event processing in social anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 38, 611–617.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Rapee, R. M., Gaston, J. E., & Abbott, M. J. (2009). Testing the efficacy of theoretically derived improvements in the treatment of social phobia. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 77, 317–327.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rapee, R. M., & Heimberg, R. G. (1997). A cognitive-behavioral model of anxiety in social phobia. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 35, 741–756.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Smith, J. M., & Alloy, L. B. (2009). A roadmap to rumination: A review of the definition, assessment, and conceptualization of this multifaceted construct. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 116–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Stopa, L., & Clark, D. M. (2001). Social phobia: Comments on the viability and validity of an analogue research strategy and British norms for the fear of negative evaluation questionnaire. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 423–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Vassilopoulos, S. P. (2004). Anticipatory processing in social anxiety. Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 32, 285–293.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Watson, D., & Friend, R. (1969). Measurement of social-evaluative anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 448–457.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wells, A. (2007). Cognition about cognition: Metacognitive therapy and change in generalized anxiety disorder and social phobia. Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, 14, 18–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Wells, A., & Papageorgiou, C. (1998). Social phobia: Effects of external attention on anxiety, negative beliefs and perspective taking. Behavior Therapy, 29, 357–370.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wells, A., & Papageorgiou, C. (2001). Brief cognitive therapy for social phobia: A case series. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 713–720.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Wells, A., White, J., & Carter, K. (1997). Attentional training: Effects on anxiety and beliefs in panic and social phobia. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 4, 226–232.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wong, Q. J. J., & Moulds, M. L. (2009). Impact of rumination versus distraction on anxiety and maladaptive self-beliefs in socially anxious individuals. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 47, 861–867.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wong, Q. J. J., & Moulds, M. L. (2010). The impact of anticipatory processing versus distraction on multiple indices of anxiety: Self-reports of anxiety level, skin conductance, maladaptive self-beliefs and in-situation performance (Submitted).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of PsychologyThe University of New South WalesSydneyAustralia

Personalised recommendations