Advertisement

Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 34, Issue 3, pp 241–253 | Cite as

The Cognitive Flexibility Inventory: Instrument Development and Estimates of Reliability and Validity

Original Article

Abstract

The cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) was developed to be a brief self-report measure of the type of cognitive flexibility necessary for individuals to successfully challenge and replace maladaptive thoughts with more balanced and adaptive thinking. It was designed to measure three aspects of cognitive flexibility: (a) the tendency to perceive difficult situations as controllable; (b) the ability to perceive multiple alternative explanations for life occurrences and human behavior; and (c) the ability to generate multiple alternative solutions to difficult situations. The two studies presented in this manuscript describe the initial development of the CFI and a 7-week longitudinal study. Results from these studies indicate the CFI has a reliable two-factor structure, excellent internal consistency, and high 7-week test–retest reliability. Preliminary evidence was obtained for the CFI’s convergent construct validity via the CFI’s correlations with other measures of cognitive flexibility (Cognitive Flexibility Scale) and coping (Ways of Coping Checklist-Revised), respectively. Support was also demonstrated for the concurrent construct validity of the CFI via its correlation with the BDI-II. Further research is needed to investigate the reliability and validity of the CFI among clinical populations.

Keywords

Cognitive flexibility Cognitive flexibility inventory (CFI) Coping Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) Depression 

References

  1. Austin, M. P., Ross, M., O’Carrol, R. E., Ebmeier, K. P., & Goodwin, G. M. (1992). Cognitive function in major depression. Journal of Affective Disorders, 25, 21–30.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory-second edition. Manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation, Harcourt Brace and Company.Google Scholar
  3. Berg, E. A. (1948). A simple objective test for measuring flexibility in thinking. Journal of General Psychology, 39, 15–22.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Cattell, R. B. (1966). The scree test for the number of factors. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 1, 245–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Comrey, A. L. (1988). Factor-analytic methods of scale development in personality and clinical psychology. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 56(5), 754–761.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2.th ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  7. Crocker, L., & Algina, J. (2006). Introduction to classical and modern test theory. Belmont CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  8. Dennis, J. P., & Vander Wal, J. S. (2009a). A comparison of the role of performance-based and self-report measures of cognitive flexibility in predicting depression. Manuscript in preparation. Saint Louis University, MO.Google Scholar
  9. Dennis, J. P., & Vander Wal, J. S. (2009b). The relationship between life event stress cognitive flexibility coping, and depression: A longitudinal study. Manuscript in preparation. Saint Louis University, MO.Google Scholar
  10. DeRubeis, R. J., Hollon, S. D., Grove, W. M., Evans, M. D., Garvey, M. J., & Tuason, V. B. (1990). How does cognitive therapy work? Cognitive change and symptom change in cognitive therapy and pharmacotherapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 58(6), 862–869.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Folkman, S., & Lazarus, R. S. (1985). If it changes it must be a process: Study of emotion and coping during three stages of a college examination. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 150–170.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Fresco, D. M., Rytwinski, N. K., & Craighead, L. W. (2007a). Explanatory flexibility and negative life events interact to predict depression symptoms. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 26(5), 595–608.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Fresco, D. M., Schumm, J. A., & Dobson, K. S. (2007b). Explanatory flexibility and explanatory style: Modality-specific mechanisms of change when comparing behavioral activation with and without cognitive interventions (submitted).Google Scholar
  14. Golden, C. J. (1975). A group form of the Stroop color and word test. Journal of Personality Assessment, 39, 386–388.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Grant, M. M., Thase, M. E., & Sweeney, J. A. (2001). Cognitive disturbance in outpatient depressed younger adults: Evidence of modest impairment. Biological Psychiatry, 50, 35–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hayes, A. M., & Strauss, J. L. (1998). Dynamic systems theory as a paradigm for the study of change in psychotherapy: An application to cognitive therapy for depression. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 66(6), 939–947.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Hollon, S. D., DeRubeis, R. J., & Evans, M. D. (1996). Cognitive therapy in the treatment and prevention of depression. In P. M. Salkovskis (Ed.), Frontiers of cognitive therapy (pp. 293–317). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  18. Ilonen, T., Taiminen, T., Karlsson, H., Lauerman, H., Tuimala, P., Leinonen, K., et al. (2000). Impaired Wisconsin card sorting test performance in first-episode severe depression. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 54(4), 275–280.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Keller, M. B., & Boland, R. J. (1998). Implications of failing to achieve successful long-term maintenance treatment of recurrent unipolar major depression. Biological Psychiatry, 44(5), 348–360.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, D. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 8–19.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Kindermann, S. S., Kalayam, B., Brown, G. G., Burdick, K. E., & Alexopoulos, G. S. (2000). Executive functions and P300 latency in elderly depressed patients and control subjects. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, 8, 57–65.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Martin, M. M., & Anderson, C. M. (1998). The cognitive flexibility scale: Three validity studies. Communication Reports, 11(1), 1–9.Google Scholar
  23. Martin, M. M., & Rubin, R. B. (1995). A new measure of cognitive flexibility. Psychological Reports, 76, 623–626.Google Scholar
  24. Merriam, E. P., Thase, B. A., Haas, G. L., Keshavan, M. S., & Sweeney, J. A. (1999). Prefrontal cortical dysfunction in depression determined by Wisconsin card sorting test performance. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(5), 780–782.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Moore, R. G. (1996). It’s the thought that counts: The role of intentions and meta-awareness in cognitive therapy. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly, 10, 255–269.Google Scholar
  26. National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH). (1999). The numbers count (NIH Publication No. NIH 99-4584). Available from: http:www.NIMH.NIH.gov/p-ublicat/numbers.CFM.
  27. Peterson, C., Semmel, A., von Baeyer, C., Abramson, L. Y., Metalsky, G. I., & Seligman, M. E. P. (1982). The attributional style questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 6(3), 287–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Reitan, R., & Wolfson, D. (1993). The Halstead-Reitan neuropsychologic test battery: Theory and clinical interpretation. Tucson, AZ: Neuropsychology Press.Google Scholar
  29. Schur, S. A. (1999). The relationships between problem-solving, life stress and depression. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences & Engineering, 59(12-B), 6496.Google Scholar
  30. Teasdale, J. D., Scott, J., Moore, R. G., Hayhurst, H., Pope, M., & Paykel, E. S. (2001). How does cognitive therapy prevent relapse in residual depression? Evidence from a controlled trial. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 69, 347–357.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Teasdale, J. D., Segal, Z. V., & Williams, J. M. G. (1995). How does cognitive therapy prevent depressive relapse and why should attentional control (mindfulness) training help? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 225–239.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wilson, R., Christensen, P., Merrifield, P., & Guilford, J. (1975). Alternate uses test. Beverly Hills, CA: Sheridan Psychological Company.Google Scholar
  33. Young, J. E., Weinberger, A. D., & Beck, A. T. (2001). Cognitive therapy for depression. In D. H. Barlow (Ed.), Clinical handbook of psychological disorders: A step-by-step treatment manual (3rd ed., pp. 264–308). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of PennsylvaniaPhiladelphiaUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologySaint Louis UniversitySt. LouisUSA

Personalised recommendations