Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 343–358 | Cite as

Do Early Maladaptive Schemas Mediate the Relationship Between Childhood Experiences and Avoidant Personality Disorder Features? A Preliminary Investigation in a Non-Clinical Sample

Original Article


The current study tested the hypothesis that early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) mediate the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences and avoidant personality disorder (AVPD) symptoms. One hundred and seventy-eight non-clinical participants completed questionnaires measuring retrospectively reported childhood experiences, a measure of EMSs, and AVPD symptoms. Path analyses showed that the EMSs of subjugation, abandonment, and emotional inhibition fully mediated the relationship between retrospectively reported childhood experiences (specifically mother overprotection & family sociability) and AVPD symptoms. The abandonment and subjugation EMSs were found to fully mediate the relationship between family sociability and AVPD symptoms while the subjugation and emotional inhibition EMSs fully mediated the relationship between mother (but not father) overprotection and AVPD symptoms. Finally, retrospective reports of childhood maltreatment were found to be associated with all EMSs within the disconnection/rejection domain apart from the abandonment EMS although these EMSs did not significantly account for AVPD symptoms. These results are consistent with cognitive-behavioural formulations of personality disorders and this study is the first to show that EMSs mediate the relationship between childhood factors and AVPD features.


Avoidant personality disorder Early maladaptive schemas Schema therapy Childhood maltreatment Personality disorder Cognitive-behavioural therapy Family environment 


  1. Alden, L. E., Laposa, J. M., Taylor, C. T., & Ryder, A. G. (2002). Avoidant personality disorder: Current status and future directions. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 1–29. doi:10.1521/pedi. Scholar
  2. APA. (1980). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  3. APA. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th text revision ed.). Washington, D.C.: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  4. Armstrong, M. I., Birnie-Lefcovitch, S., & Ungar, M. T. (2005). Pathways between social support, family well being, quality of parenting, and child resilience: What we know. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 14(2), 269–281. doi:10.1007/s10826-005-5054-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Arntz, A. (1999). Do personality disorders exist? On the validity of the concept and its cognitive-behavioral formulation and treatment. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, s97–s134. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(99)00052-2.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Arntz, A., Dietzel, R., & Dreessen, L. (1999). Assumptions in borderline personality disorder: Specificity, stability, and relationship with etiological factors. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 37, 545–557. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(98)00152-1.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagby, M., & Farvolden, P. (2003). The personality diagnostic questionnaire-4 (PDQ-4). In M. J. Hilsenroth, D. L. Segal, & M. Hersen (Eds.), Comprehensive handbook of psychological assessment: volume 2, Personality assessment (pp. 122–133). USA: Wiley.Google Scholar
  8. Ball, S. A., & Cecero, J. J. (2001). Addicted patients with personality disorders: Traits, schemas and presenting problems. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(1), 72–83. doi:10.1521/pedi. Scholar
  9. Barber, B. K., & Buehler, C. (1996). Family cohesion and enmeshment: Different constructs, different effects. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 58(2), 433–441. doi:10.2307/353507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baron, R. M., & Kenny, D. A. (1986). The moderator-mediator variable distinction in social psychological research: Conceptual, strategic, and statistical considerations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 1173–1182. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.51.6.1173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Battle, C. L., Shea, T., Johnson, D. M., Yen, S., Zlotnick, C., Zanarini, M., et al. (2004). Childhood maltreatment associated with adult personality disorders: Findings from the collaborative longitudinal personality disorder study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(2), 193–211. doi:10.1521/pedi. Scholar
  12. Beck, A. T., Freeman, A., Davis, D. D., Pretzer, J., Fleming, B., Arntz, A., et al. (2004). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bernstein, D. P. (2002). Cognitive therapy of personality disorders in patients with histories of emotional abuse or neglect. Psychiatric Annals, 32(10), 618–628.Google Scholar
  14. Bernstein, D. P., & Fink, L. (1998). Childhood trauma questionnaire: A retrospective self-report. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  15. Bernstein, D. P., Stein, J. A., & Handelsman, L. (1998). Predicting personality pathology among adult patients with substance use disorders: Effects of childhood maltreatment. Addictive Behaviors, 23(6), 855–868. doi:10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00072-0.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bloom, B. L. (1985). A factor analysis of self-report measures of family functioning. Family Process, 24(2), 225–239. doi:10.1111/j.1545-5300.1985.00225.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bögels, S. M., van Oosten, A., Muris, P., & Smulders, D. (2001). Familial correlates of social anxiety in children and adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 39, 273–287. doi:10.1016/S0005-7967(00)00005-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Brewin, C. R., Andrews, B., & Gotlib, I. H. (1993). Psychopathology and early experience: A reappraisal of retrospective reports. Psychological Bulletin, 113, 82–98. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.113.1.82.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Brook, C. A., & Schmidt, L. A. (2008). Social anxiety disorder: A review of environmental risk factors. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 4(1), 123–143.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Bruch, M. A., & Heimberg, R. G. (1994). Differences in perceptions of parental and personal characteristics between generalized and nongeneralised social phobics. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 8(2), 155–168. doi:10.1016/0887-6185(94)90013-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Carr, S., & Francis, A. (2009). Childhood familial environment, maltreatment and borderline personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample: A cognitive behavioural perspective. Clinical Psychologist, 13(1), 28–37. doi:10.1080/13284200802680476.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chambless, D. L., Fydrich, T., & Rodebaugh, T. L. (2006). Generalized social phobia and avoidant personality disorder: Meaningful distinction or useless duplication? Depression and Anxiety, 0, 1–12.Google Scholar
  23. Chorpita, B. F., & Barlow, D. H. (1998). The development of anxiety: The role of control in the early environment. Psychological Bulletin, 124, 3–21.Google Scholar
  24. Cramer, V., Torgersen, S., & Kringlen, E. (2006). Personality disorders and quality of life: A population study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 178–184. doi:10.1016/j.comppsych.2005.06.002.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Davison, S., Leese, M., & Taylor, P. J. (2001). Examination of the screening properties of the personality diagnostic questionnaire 4+ (PDQ4+) in a prison population. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15(2), 180–194. doi:10.1521/pedi. Scholar
  26. Davison, S., & Taylor, P. J. (2001). Psychological distress and severity of personality disorder symptomatology in prisoners convicted of violent and sexual offences. Psychology, Crime & Law, 7, 263–273. doi:10.1080/10683160108401797.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Dolan, B., Evans, C., & Norton, K. (1995). Multiple axis-II diagnoses of personality disorder. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 166(1), 107–112. doi:10.1192/bjp.166.1.107.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Dunsmore, J. C., & Halberstadt, A. G. (1997). How does family emotional expressiveness affect children’s schemas? New Directions for Child Development, 77, 45–68.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ekselius, L., Tillfors, M., Furmark, T., & Fredrickson, M. (2001). Personality disorders in the general population: DSM-IV and ICD-10 defined prevalence as related to sociodemographic profile. Personality and Individual Differences, 30, 311–320. doi:10.1016/S0191-8869(00)00048-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Fossati, A., Maffei, C., Bagnato, M., Donati, D., Fiorilli, M., Novella, L., et al. (1998). Brief communication: Criterion validity of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+ (PDQ-4+) in a mixed psychiatric sample. Journal of Personality Disorders, 12, 172–178.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Gibb, B. E., Wheeler, R., Alloy, L. B., & Abramson, L. Y. (2001). Emotional, physical, and sexual maltreatment in childhood versus adolescence and personality dysfunction in young adulthood. Journal of Personality Disorders, 15, 505–515. doi:10.1521/pedi.15.6.505.19194.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Glaser, B. A., Campbell, L. F., Calhoun, G. B., Bates, J. M., & Petrocelli, J. V. (2002). The early maladaptive schema questionnaire-short form: A construct validity study. Measurement & Evaluation in Counseling & Development, 35, 2–13.Google Scholar
  33. Grilo, C. M., & Masheb, R. M. (2002). Childhood maltreatment and personality disorders in adult patients with binge eating disorder. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106(3), 183–188. doi:10.1034/j.1600-0447.2002.02303.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hair, J. F. J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., & Black, W. C. (1998). Multivariate data analysis (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  35. Harter, S., & Vanecek, R. J. (2000). Cognitive assumptions and long-term distress in survivors of childhood abuse, parental alcoholism, and dysfunctional family environments. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 24(4), 445–472. doi:10.1023/A:1005531803919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Henry, B., Moffitt, T. E., Caspi, A., Langley, J., & Silva, P. A. (1994). On the “remembrance of things past”: A longitudinal evaluation of the retrospective method. Psychological Assessment, 6, 92–101. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.6.2.92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hoffart, A., Sexton, H., Hedley, L. M., Wang, C. E., Holthe, H., Haugman, J. A., et al. (2006). The structure of maladaptive schemas: A confirmatory factor analysis and a psychometric valuation of factor-derived scales. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(6), 627–644. doi:10.1007/s10608-005-9630-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hyler, S. E. (1994). Personality diagnostic questionnaire 4+ (PDQ-4+). New York: New York State Psychiatric Institute.Google Scholar
  39. Jackson, H. J., & Burgess, P. M. (2000). Personality disorders in the community: A report from the Australian national survey of mental health and well-being. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 35, 531–538. doi:10.1007/s001270050276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Johnson, J. G., Cohen, P., Brown, J., Smailes, E. M., & Bernstein, D. P. (1999). Childhood maltreatment increases risk for personality disorders during early adulthood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 56, 600–606. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.56.7.600.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Johnson, J. G., Smailes, E. M., Cohen, P., Brown, J., & Bernstein, D. P. (2000). Associations between four types of childhood neglect and personality disorder symptoms during adolescence and early adulthood: Findings of a community-based longitudinal study. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14(2), 171–187.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Jovev, M., & Jackson, H. J. (2004). Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(5), 467–478. doi:10.1521/pedi.18.5.467.51325.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Joyce, P. R., McKenzie, J. M., Luty, S. E., Mulder, R. T., Carter, J. D., Sullivan, P. F., et al. (2003). Temperament, childhood environment and psychopathology as risk factors for avoidant and borderline personality disorders. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 37, 756–764. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1614.2003.01263.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Lee, C. W., Taylor, G., & Dunn, J. (1999). Factor structure of the schema questionnaire in a large clinical sample. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 23, 441–451. doi:10.1023/A:1018712202933.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Little, R. J. A., & Rubin, D. B. (1987). Statistical analysis with missing data. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  46. Lizardo, H., & Klein, D. N. (2005). Long-term stability of parental representations in depressed outpatients utilizing the parental bonding instrument. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 193(3), 183–188. doi:10.1097/01.nmd.0000154838.16100.36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. MacKinnon, D. P., Fairchild, A. J., & Fritz, M. S. (2007). Mediation analysis. Annual Review of Psychology, 58, 593–614. doi:10.1146/annurev.psych.58.110405.085542.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. MacKinnon, A. J., Henderson, A. S., Scott, R., & Duncan-Jones, P. (1989). The parental bonding instrument (PBI): An epidemiological study in a general population sample. Psychological Medicine, 19, 1023–1034.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. MacMillan, H. L., Fleming, J. E., Streiner, D. L., Lin, E., Boyle, M. H., Jamieson, E., et al. (2001). Childhood abuse and lifetime psychopathology in a community sample. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 158(11), 1878–1883. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.158.11.1878.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Manassis, K., Owens, M., Adam, K. S., West, M., & Sheldon-Keller, A. E. (1999). Assessing attachment: Convergent validity of the adult attachment interview and the parental bonding instrument. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 33, 559–567. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1614.1999.00560.x.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Mendlowicz, M. V., Braga, R. J., Cabizuca, M., Land, M. G., & Figueira, I. L. (2006). A comparison of publication trends on avoidant personality disorder and social phobia. Psychiatry Research, 144, 205–209. doi:10.1016/j.psychres.2004.06.024.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Meyer, B. (2002). Personality and mood correlates of avoidant personality disorder. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16, 174–188. doi:10.1521/pedi. Scholar
  53. Meyer, B., & Carver, C. S. (2000). Negative childhood accounts, sensitivity, and pessimism: A study of avoidant personality disorder features in college students. Journal of Personality Disorders, 14, 233–248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Nakao, K., Gunderson, J. G., Phillips, K. A., Tanaka, N., Yorifuji, K., Takaishi, J., et al. (1992). Functional impairment in personality disorders. Journal of Personality Disorders, 6, 24–33.Google Scholar
  55. Nash, M. R., Hulsey, T. L., Sexton, M. C., Harralson, T. L., & Lambert, W. (1993). Long-term sequelae of childhood sexual abuse: Perceived family environment, psychopathology, and dissociation. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 61, 276–283. doi:10.1037/0022-006X.61.2.276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Noyes, R., Woodman, C. L., Holt, C. S., Reich, J. H., & Zimmerman, M. B. (1995). Avoidant personality traits distinguish social phobia and panic disorder subjects. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 183, 145–153. doi:10.1097/00005053-199503000-00004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Paivo, S. C., & Cramer, K. M. (2004). Factor structure and reliability of the childhood trauma questionnaire in a Canadian undergraduate student sample. Child Abuse & Neglect, 28, 889–904. doi:10.1016/j.chiabu.2004.01.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Paris, J. (1998). Does childhood trauma cause personality disorders in adults? Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43(2), 148–153.Google Scholar
  59. Parker, G. (1989). The parental bonding instrument: Psychometric properties reviewed. Psychiatric Developments, 4, 317–335.Google Scholar
  60. Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–10.Google Scholar
  61. Rapee, R. M., & Spence, S. H. (2004). The etiology of social phobia: Empirical evidence and an initial model. Clinical Psychology Review, 24, 737–767. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2004.06.004.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Reeves, M., & Taylor, J. (2007). Specific relationships between core beliefs and personality disorder symptoms in a non-clinical sample. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 14, 96–104. doi:10.1002/cpp.519.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Rettew, D. C. (2000). Avoidant personality disorder, generalized social phobia, and shyness: Putting the personality back in to personality disorders. Harvard Review of Psychiatry, 8, 283–297. doi:10.1093/hrp/8.6.283.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Rettew, D. C., Zanarini, M. C., Yen, S., Grilo, C. M., Skodol, A. E., Shea, M. T., et al. (2003). Childhood antecedents of avoidant personality disorder: A retrospective study. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42, 1122–1130. doi:10.1097/01.CHI.0000070250.24125.5F.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Samuels, J., Eaton, W. W., Bienvenu, O. J., Brown, C. H., Costa, P. T., Jr, & Nestadt, G. (2002). Prevalence and correlates of personality disorders in a community sample. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 180, 536–542. doi:10.1192/bjp.180.6.536.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Sansone, R. A., & Levitt, J. L. (2005). Borderline personality and eating disorders. Eating Disorders, 13, 71–83. doi:10.1080/10640260590893665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Schafer, J. L., & Graham, J. W. (2002). Missing data: Our view of the state of the art. Psychological Methods, 7, 147–177. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.2.147.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Schmidt, N. B., Joiner, T. E., Young, J. E., & Telch, M. J. (1995). The schema questionnaire: Investigation of psychometric properties and the hierarchical structure of a measure of maladaptive schemas. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 19(3), 295–321. doi:10.1007/BF02230402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shrout, P. E., & Bolger, N. (2002). Mediation in experimental and nonexperimental studies: New procedures and recommendations. Psychological Methods, 7(4), 422–445. doi:10.1037/1082-989X.7.4.422.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Skodol, A. E., Oldham, J. M., Bender, D. S., Dyck, I. R., Stout, R. L., Morey, L. C., et al. (2005). Dimensional representations of DSM-IV personality disorders: Relationships to functional impairment. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(10), 1919–1925. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1919.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Stravynski, A., Elie, R., & Franche, R. L. (1989). Perceptions of early parenting by patients diagnosed with avoidant personality disorder: A test of the overprotection hypothesis. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 80, 415–420. doi:10.1111/j.1600-0447.1989.tb02999.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Sturrock, B.A., Francis, A.J.P., & Carr, S.N. (2009). Avoidance of affect mediates the effect of invalidating childhood environments on borderline personality symptomatology in a non-clinical sample. Clinical Psychologist (in press).Google Scholar
  73. Sullivan, P. F., Bulik, C. M., Carter, F. A., & Joyce, P. R. (1995). The significance of a history of childhood sexual abuse in bulimia nervosa. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 679–682. doi:10.1192/bjp.167.5.679.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Suveg, C., Sood, E., Barmish, A., Tiwari, S., Hudson, J. L., & Kendall, P. C. (2008). “I’d rather not talk about it”: Emotion parenting in families of children with an anxiety disorder. Journal of Family Psychology, 22(6), 875–884. doi:10.1037/a0012861.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Taylor, C. T., Laposa, J. M., & Alden, L. E. (2004). Is avoidant personality disorder more than just social avoidance. Journal of Personality Disorders, 18(6), 571–594. doi:10.1521/pedi.18.6.571.54792.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Torgersen, S., Kringlen, E., & Cramer, V. (2001). The prevalence of personality disorders in a community sample. Archives of General Psychiatry, 58(6), 590–596. doi:10.1001/archpsyc.58.6.590.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Trull, T. J. (1993). Temporal stability and validity of two personality disorder inventories. Psychological Assessment, 5(1), 11–18. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.5.1.11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Uehara, T., Sakado, K., & Sato, T. (1997). Test-retest reliability of the personality diagnostic questionnaire-revised. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 51, 369–372. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.1997.tb02601.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. van Velzen, C. J. M., Emmelkamp, P. M. G., & Scholing, A. (2000). Generalized social phobia versus avoidant personality disorder: Differences in psychopathology, personality traits, and social and occupational functioning. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 14, 395–411. doi:10.1016/S0887-6185(00)00030-X.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. Waller, G., Meyer, C., & Ohanian, V. (2001). Psychometric properties of the long and short versions of the Young Schema Questionnaire: Core beliefs among bulimic and comparison women. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 25(2), 137–147. doi:10.1023/A:1026487018110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Welburn, K., Coristine, M., Dagg, P., Pontefract, A., & Jordan, S. (2002). The schema questionnaire-short form: Factor analysis and relationship between schemas and symptoms. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 26, 519–530. doi:10.1023/A:1016231902020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Westen, D., & Shedler, J. (1999). Revising and assessing axis II, part II: Toward an empirically based and clinically useful classification of personality disorders. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 156(2), 273–285.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Weston, R., & Gore, P. A., Jr. (2006). A brief guide to structural equation modeling. The Counseling Psychologist, 34(5), 719–751. doi:10.1177/0011000006286345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Widom, C. S., & Morris, S. (1997). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 2. Childhood sexual abuse. Psychological Assessment, 9(1), 34–46. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.9.1.34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Widom, C. S., & Shepard, R. L. (1996). Accuracy of adult recollections of childhood victimization: Part 1. Childhood physical abuse. Psychological Assessment, 8, 412–421. doi:10.1037/1040-3590.8.4.412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Wiggins, J. S., & Pincus, A. L. (1989). Conceptions of personality disorders and dimensions of personality. Psychological Assessment. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 1(4), 305–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Wilberg, T., Dammen, T., & Friis, S. (2000). Comparing personality diagnostic questionnaire-4+ with a longitudinal, expert, all data (LEAD) standard diagnoses in a sample with a high prevalence of axis I and axis II disorders. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 41(4), 295–302. doi:10.1053/comp.2000.0410295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. Willinger, U., Diendorfer-Radner, G., Willnauer, R., Jörgl, G., & Hager, V. (2005). Parenting stress and parental bonding. Behavioral Medicine (Washington, D.C.), 31(2), 63. doi:10.3200/BMED.31.2.63-72.Google Scholar
  89. Yang, J., Bagby, M., Costa, P. T., Jr, Ryder, A. G., & Herbst, J. H. (2002). Assessing the DSM-IV structure of personality disorder with a sample of Chinese psychiatric patients. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(4), 317–331. doi:10.1521/pedi.16.4.317.24127.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. Young, J.E., & Brown, G.K. (2003). Young schema questionnaire-short form, from
  91. Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide. New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  92. Zimmerman, M. (1994). Diagnosing personality disorders: A review of issues and research methods. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51, 225–245.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. Zimmerman, M., Rothschild, L., & Chelminski, I. (2005). The prevalence of DSM-IV personality disorders in psychiatric outpatients. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 1911–1918. doi:10.1176/appi.ajp.162.10.1911.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Psychology, School of Health SciencesRMIT UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Primary Mental Health ServicesMildura Base HospitalMilduraAustralia

Personalised recommendations