Overprotective Parenting, Social Anxiety, and External Locus of Control: Cross-sectional and Longitudinal Relationships
- 1.8k Downloads
A relationship between social anxiety and a parenting style marked by overprotection and low warmth has been repeatedly demonstrated (e.g., Bruch et al. in Anxiety Reaserch 2:57–65, 1989; Lieb et al. in Arch Gen Psychiatry 57:859–866, 2000). The current study supports the findings in the broader literature of a significant relationship between social anxiety and recollections of overprotective and cold parenting among college students. External locus of control partially mediated the relationship between overprotective parenting and social anxiety. However, these analyses used cross-sectional data, and an alternate mediational model was also significant, highlighting the various ways in which these factors interact. Finally, recollections of maternal overprotection predicted an increase in social anxiety during the first semester of college, suggesting their influence on current functioning.
KeywordsSocial anxiety Parenting Locus of control Mediator
This study was part of Megan Spokas’s doctoral dissertation conducted at Temple University under the mentorship of Richard G. Heimberg. The authors wish to thank Lauren B. Alloy, Deborah A. G. Drabick, Robert Fauber, Melissa Napolitano, and Robert Ruchinskas, who served on the dissertation defense committee.
- Beck, A. T. (1967). Depression: Causes and treatment. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
- Bruch, M. A., Heimberg, R. G., Berger, P., & Collins, T. M. (1989). Social phobia and recollections of early parental and personal characteristics. Anxiety Research, 2, 57–65.Google Scholar
- Carton, J. S., & Nowicki, J. (1994). Antecedents of individual differences in locus of control reinforcement: A critical review. Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs, 120, 31–81.Google Scholar
- Gordon, D. A., Nowicki, S., & Wichern, F. (1981). Observed maternal and child behaviors in a dependency-producing task as a function of children’s locus of control orientation. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 27, 43–51.Google Scholar
- Heimberg, R. G., Mueller, G. P., Holt, C. S., Hope, D. A., & Liebowitz, M. R. (1992). Assessment of anxiety in social interaction and being observed by others: The Social Interaction Anxiety Scale and the Social Phobia Scale. Behavior Therapy, 23, 53–73. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(05)80308-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Iancu, I., Levin, J., Hermesh, H., Dannon, P., Poreh, A., Ben-Yehuda, Y., et al. (2006). Social phobia symptoms: Prevalence, sociodemographic correlates, and overlap with specific phobia symptoms. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 47, 399–405. doi: 10.1016/j.comppsych.2006.01.008.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Levenson, H. (1981). Differentiating among internality, powerful others, and chance. In H. M. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control construct: Vol. 1, Assessment methods (pp. 15–63). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Muris, P., Meesters, C., Schouten, E., & Hoge, E. (2004). Effects of perceived control on the relationship between perceived parental rearing behaviors and symptoms of anxiety and depression in non-clinical pre-adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 51–58. doi: 10.1023/A:1027334314021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Parker, G., Tupling, H., & Brown, L. B. (1979). A parental bonding instrument. The British Journal of Medical Psychology, 52, 1–11.Google Scholar
- Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2004). SPSS and SAS procedures for estimating indirect effects in simple mediation models. Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers, 36, 717–731.Google Scholar
- Sobel, M. E. (1982). Asymptotic confidence intervals for indirect effects in structural equation models. In S. Leinhart (Ed.), Sociological methodology (pp. 290–312). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar