Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 263–278 | Cite as

Multiple Group Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Young Schema-Questionnaire in a Dutch Clinical versus Non-clinical Population

  • Marleen M. Rijkeboer
  • Huub van den Bergh


So far, results on the dimensionality of the Young Schema-Questionnaire (YSQ) were based on exploratory factor analysis. In this study, confirmatory techniques were used to investigate the latent structure of the YSQ and its measurement invariance across a Dutch clinical (n = 172) and non-clinical (n = 162) sample. Data support the 16 factor structure as originally hypothesized by Young (Young, J. E. (1994). Cognitive therapy for personality disorders: A schema-focused approach (Rev. ed.). Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press), including Social Undesirability, which did not appear as a separate factor in earlier studies. Furthermore, results suggest factorial similarity across both samples. Best fit was found for a model in which inter-factor correlations and factor loadings were specified as invariant across samples while error variances were allowed to vary. An additional finding was that the YSQ can be split into two parallel parts. Parallel tests represent the same underlying constructs, and share identical psychometric properties, but contain different items. Their utilization could be highly profitable for research and clinical practice.


Young Schema-Questionnaire Multi group confirmatory factor analysis Parallel tests Measurement invariance 



The authors thank Jan van den Bout, Arnoud Arntz, Luk Gijs, and three anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on earlier drafts of this paper.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PsychologyUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Faculty of Humanities, Utrecht Institute of LinguisticsUtrecht UniversityUtrechtThe Netherlands

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