Cognitive Therapy and Research

, Volume 30, Issue 5, pp 571–584 | Cite as

Early Maladaptive Schemas and Social Phobia

  • José Pinto-GouveiaEmail author
  • Paula Castilho
  • Ana Galhardo
  • Marina Cunha
Original Article


The present study compares core beliefs between a group of patients with social phobia (n = 62), other anxiety disorders (n = 41) and a group of non-psychiatric controls (n = 55). Participants completed measures to assess social anxiety and the Young’s Schema Questionnaire (123-items version) that is designed to assess 15 early maladaptive schemas (EMSs). Results suggest that the schematic structure of patients with social phobia differs from the one of patients with other anxiety disorders and from normal controls’. Patients with social phobia show higher levels of EMSs particularly in the area of disconnection/rejection than patients with other anxiety disorders. Regression analysis identified the EMSs of mistrust/abuse, social undesirability/defectiveness, entitlement, emotional deprivation, unrelenting standards and shame, as the ones that explain most of the variance in our sample subject’s anxiety that they felt in social situations and on fear of negative evaluation.


Social phobia Social anxiety Anxiety disorders Schema questionnaire 



This study was supported in part by the CINEICC financed by the FCT. The authors wish to acknowledge the helpful comments and suggestions of the anonymous reviewers on earlier version of this manuscript.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • José Pinto-Gouveia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Paula Castilho
    • 1
  • Ana Galhardo
    • 2
  • Marina Cunha
    • 2
  1. 1.CINEICC – Faculdade de Psicologia e de Ciências da Educação da Universidade de CoimbraCoimbraPortugal
  2. 2.Instituto Superior Miguel TorgaCoimbraPortugal

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