Advertisement

Developing Digital Records: Early Experiences of Record and Replay

Abstract

In this paper we consider the development of ‘digital records’ to support ethnographic study of interaction and collaboration in ubiquitous computing environments and articulate the core concept of ‘record and replay’ through two case studies. One focuses on the utility of digital records, or records of interaction generated by a computer system, to ethnographic inquiry and highlights the mutually supportive nature of digital records and ethnographic methods. The other focuses on the work it takes to make digital records support ethnography, particularly the work of description and representation that is required to reconcile the fragmented character of interaction in ubiquitous computing environments. The work involved in ‘making digital records work’ highlights requirements for the design of tools to support the endeavour and informs the development of a Replay Tool. This tool enables ethnographers to visualize the data content of digital records; to extract sequences of relevance to analysis and remove non-relevant features; to marry recorded content with external resources, such as video; to add content from internal and external resources through annotation; and to reorder digital records to reflect the interactional order of events rather than the recorded order of events.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

References

  1. Anderson R., Sharrock W. (1993). Can Organisations Afford knowledge. Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing 1(3):143–161

  2. Barkhuus, L., M. Chalmers, P. Tennent, M. Hall, M. Bell, S. Sherwood and B. Brown (2005): Picking Pockets on the Lawn, Proceedings of 7th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Tokyo: Springer, pp. 358–374

  3. Benford, S., W. Seagar, M. Flintham, R. Anastasi, D. Rowland, J. Humble, D. Stanton, J.␣Bowers, N. Tandavanitj, M. Adams, J. Row Farr, A. Oldroyd and J. Sutton (2004): The Error of Our Ways: The Experience of Self-Reported Position in a Location-Based Game. Proceedings of 6th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Nottingham: Springer, pp. 70–87

  4. Benford, S., A. Crabtree, S. Reeves, M. Flintham and A. Drozd (2006): Designing for the Opportunities and Risks of Staging Digital Experiences in Public Settings. Proceedings of the 2006 ACM CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Montreal: ACM, pp. 427–536

  5. Benson D., Hughes J.A (1991). Method: Evidence and Inference. In: Button G. (eds). Ethnomethodology and the Human Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 109–136

  6. Blomberg, J.L., L. Suchman and R. Trigg (1996): Reflections on a Work-Oriented Design Project. Human-Computer Interaction, vol. 11, 237–265

  7. Blomberg, J.L., L. Suchman and R. Trigg (1997): Back to Work: Renewing Old Agendas for Cooperative Design. In M. Kyng and L. Mathiassen (eds.): Computers and Design in Context, Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, pp. 267–287

  8. Brown, B., I. MacColl, M. Chalmers, A. Galani, C. Randell and A. Steed (2003): Lessons from the Lighthouse. Proceedings of the 2003 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Florida: ACM Press, pp. 577–585

  9. Button, G. (1992): The Curious Case of the Vanishing Technology. In G. Button (ed.): Technology in Working Order: Studies of Work, Interaction, and Technology. London: Routledge, pp. 10–28

  10. Cheverst, K., K. Clarke, D. Fitton, M. Rouncefield, A. Crabtree and T. Hemmings (2003a)L: SPAM on the Menu: The Practical Use of Remote Messaging in Community Care. Proceedings of the 2003 ACM Conference on Universal Usability, Vancouver, Canada: ACM Press, pp. 23–29

  11. Cheverst, K., A. Dix, D. Fitton and M. Rouncefield (2003b): Out to Lunch’-Exploring the Sharing of Personal Context Through Office Door Displays. Proceedings of OZCHI 2003, Brisbane, Australia: Ergonomics Society of Australia, pp. 74–83

  12. Crabtree A., O’Brien J., Nichols D., Rouncefield M., Twidale M. (2000). Ethnomethodologically Informed Ethnography and Information Systems Design. Journal of the American Society for Information Science 51(7):666–682

  13. Crabtree A. (2003) Designing Collaborative Systems: A Practical Guide to Ethnography. Springer, London

  14. Crabtree A. (2004). Taking Technomethodology Seriously: Hybrid Change in the Ethnomethodology–Design Relationship. European Journal of Information Systems 13:195–209

  15. Crabtree, A., S. Benford, T. Rodden, C. Greenhalgh, M. Flintham, R. Anastasi, A. Drozd, M.␣Adams, J. Row-Farr, N. Tandavanitj and A. Steed (2004): Orchestrating a Mixed Reality Game ‘on the Ground’. Proceedings of the 2004 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. Vienna: ACM Press, pp. 391–398

  16. Crabtree, A., T. Rodden and S. Benford (2005): Moving with the Times: IT Research and the Boundaries of CSCW. Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 217–251

  17. Crabtree A. and M. Rouncefield (2005): Working with Text Logs: Some Early Experiences of e-social Science in the Field. Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on e-Social Science, June 22–24, Manchester: ESRC. http://www.ncess.ac.uk/events/conference/programme/papers/ncess2005_paper_Crabtree.pdf

  18. Crabtree, A., S. Benford, C. Greenhalgh, A. French, M. Chalmers, B. Brown and P. Tennent (2006a): Supporting ethnographic studies of computing ‘in the wild”, to appear Proceedings of the 2006 ACM Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, June 26–28, Montreal: ACM

  19. Crabtree, A., A. French, C. Greenhalgh, T. Rodden and S. Benford (2006b) Working with Digital Records: Developing Tool Support. to appear Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on e-Social Science, June 28–30, Manchester: ESRC

  20. Erickson T., Kellogg W. (2000). Social Translucence – An Approach to Designing Systems that Support Social Processes. ACM Transactions in Computer–Human Interaction 7:59–83

  21. Flintham, M., R. Anastasi, S. Benford, T. Hemmings, A. Crabtree, C. Greenhalgh, T.␣Rodden, N. Tandavanitj, M. Adams and J. Row-Farr (2003): Where On-Line Meets On-the-Streets: Experiences with Mobile Mixed Reality Games. Proceedings of the 2003 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florida: ACM Press, pp. 569–576

  22. Foster I., Kesselman C., Tuecke S. (2001). The Anatomy of the Grid: Enabling Scalable Virtual Organizations. International Journal of High Performance Computing Applications 15(3):200–222

  23. Garfinkel H. (1967). Studies in Ethnomethodology. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey

  24. Gaver W.H., Dunne A., Pacenti E. (1999). Design: Cultural Probes. Interactions 6(1):21–29

  25. Graham, C., K. Cheverst and M. Rouncefield (2005): Technologies for the Humdrum: Trajectories, Interactional Needs and a Care Setting. Proceedings of OZCHI 2005, Canberra: Ergonomics Society of Australia, pp. 21–25

  26. Heath, C.C., M. Jirotka, P. Luff and J. Hindmarsh (1994): Unpacking Collaboration: the Interactional Organisation of Trading in a City Dealing Room. Computer Supported Cooperative Work, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 147–165

  27. Heath, C. and J. Hindmarsh (2002): Analyzing interaction: video, ethnography and situated conduct. In T. May (ed.): Qualitative Research in Action. London: Sage, pp. 99–121

  28. Hine C. (1998). Virtual Ethnography. Sage, London

  29. Hughes J., Sharrock W. (1997). The Philosophy of Social Research, 3rd edn. Longman, London

  30. Hughes, J., T. Rodden, J. O’Brien, M. Rouncefield and S. Blythin (1997): Designing with␣Ethnography: A Presentation Framework for Design. Proceedings of the 1997 ACM␣Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, Amsterdam: ACM Press, pp. 147–158

  31. Hutchinson, H., W. Mackay, B. Westerlund, B.B. Bederson, A. Druin, C. Plaisant, M.␣Beaudouin-Lafon, S. Conversy, H. Evans, H. Hansen, N. Roussel, B. Eiderbäck (2003): Technology Probes: Inspiring Design for and with Families. Proceedings of the 2003 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florida: ACM Press, pp. 17–24

  32. Intille, S., E.M. Tapia, J. Rondoni, J. Beaudin, C. Kukla, S. Agarwal, L. Bao and K. Larson (2003): Tools for Studying Behavior and Technology in Natural Settings. Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, Seattle: Springer.•, pp. 157–174

  33. Ivory M., Hearst M. (2001). The State of the Art in Automating Usability Evaluation. ACM Computing Surveys 33(4):470–516

  34. Kort, J. and H. de Poot (2005): Usage Analysis: Combining Logging and Qualitative Methods. Proceedings of the 2005 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (Extended Abstracts), Vienna: ACM Press, pp. 2121–2122

  35. Lynch M. (2000). Against Reflexivity as an Academic Virtue and Source of Privileged Knowledge. Theory, Culture, and Society 17:27–53

  36. Nardi, B., S. Whittaker and E. Bradner (2000): Interaction and Outeraction: Instant Messaging in Action. Proceedings of the 2000 ACM Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work, Philadelphia: ACM Press, pp. 79–88

  37. Park R.E., Burgess E.W., McKenzie R.D. (1925). The City. University of Chicago Press, Chicago

  38. Plummer K (1983). Documents of Life: An Introduction to the Problems and Literature of a Humanistic Method. Allen & Unwin, London

  39. Prosser J. (eds). (1998). Image Based Research: A Sourcebook for Qualitative Researchers. Falmer Press, London

  40. Rouncefield, M., A. Crabtree, T. Hemmings, T. Rodden, K. Cheverst, K. Clarke, G.␣Dewsbury and J. Hughes (2003): Designing with Care: Adapting Cultural Probes to Inform Design in Sensitive Settings. Proceedings of OZCHI 2003. Brisbane, Australia: Ergonomics Society of Australia, pp. 4–13

  41. Ruhleder, K. and B. Jordan (1997): Capturing Complex, Distributed Activities: Video-based Interaction Analysis as a Component of Workplace Ethnography. Proc. Information Systems and Qualitative Research, IFIP TC8 WG 8.2 International Conference, Philadelphia: Chapman & Hall, pp. 246–275

  42. Sacks H., Schegloff E., Jefferson G. (1974). A Simplest Systematics for the Organization of Turn-Taking in Conversation. Language 50:696–735

  43. Sacks H. (1992). A Single Instance of a Phone-Call Opening. In: Jefferson G. (eds). Lectures on Conversation Volume II. Blackwell, Oxford, pp. 542–553

  44. Schmidt K., Bannon L. (1992). Taking CSCW Seriously: Supporting Articulation Work. Computer Supported Cooperative Work: The Journal of Collaborative Computing 1(1):7–40

  45. Sharrock W., Button G. (1991). The Social Actor: Social Action in Real Time. In: Button G. (eds). Ethnomethodology and the Human Sciences. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 137–175

  46. Strauss A. (1987). Qualitative Analysis for Social Scientists. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge Cambridgeshire

  47. Suchman L. (1987). Plans and Situated Actions: The Problem of Human-Machine Communication. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge

  48. Tapia, E.M., S. Intille and K. Larson (2004): Activity Recognition in the Home Setting Using Simple and Ubiquitous Sensors. Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on Pervasive Computing, Linz: Springer, pp. 158–175

  49. Wieder D., Zimmerman D. (1977). The Diary: Diary Interview Methods. Urban Life 5(4):479–498

  50. Woodruff, A., M. Szymanski, R. Grinter and P. Aoki (2002): Practical strategies for integrating a conversation analyst in an iterative design process. Proceedings of the 2002 ACM Symposium on Designing Interactive Systems, London: ACM Press, pp. 255–264

Download references

Acknowledgments

The research on which this article is based was funded by the UK ESRC e-Social Science Research Node DReSS (http://www.ncess.ac.uk/digitalrecord); the UK EPSRC Equator Interdisciplinary Research Collaboration Equator (http://www.equator.ac.uk); the Department of Information Systems at the University of Melbourne (http://www.dis.unimelb.edu.au); and the Smart Internet Technology Cooperative Research Centre, Australia (http://www.smartinternet.com.au).

Author information

Correspondence to Andy Crabtree.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Crabtree, A., French, A., Greenhalgh, C. et al. Developing Digital Records: Early Experiences of Record and Replay. Comput Supported Coop Work 15, 281–319 (2006). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10606-006-9026-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • CSCW
  • digital records
  • ethnography
  • e-Social Science
  • record and replay