Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW)

, Volume 13, Issue 3–4, pp 249–282 | Cite as

People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places: The P3 Framework for Location-Based Community Systems

  • Quentin Jones
  • Sukeshini A. Grandhi
  • Loren Terveen
  • Steve Whittaker


In this paper we examine an emerging class of systems that link People-to-People-to-Geographical-Places; we call these P3-Systems. Through analyzing the literature, we have identified four major P3-System design techniques: People-Centered systems that use either absolute user location (e.g. Active Badge) or user proximity (e.g. Hocman) and Place-Centered systems based on either a representation of people’s use of physical spaces (e.g. ActiveMap) or on a matching virtual space that enables online interaction linked to physical location (e.g. Geonotes). In addition, each feature can be instantiated synchronously or asynchronously. The P3-System framework organizes existing systems into meaningful categories and structures the design space for an interesting new class of potentially context-aware systems. Our discussion of the framework suggests new ways of understanding and addressing the privacy concerns associated with location aware community system and outlines additional socio-technical challenges and opportunities.


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Copyright information

© Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Quentin Jones
    • 1
  • Sukeshini A. Grandhi
    • 1
  • Loren Terveen
    • 2
  • Steve Whittaker
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Information Systems College of Computing SciencesNew Jersey Institute of TechnologyUniversity Heights NewarkUSA
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  3. 3.Department of Information StudiesUniversity of SheffieldWestern Bank, SheffieldUK

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