Journal of Consumer Policy

, Volume 37, Issue 2, pp 161–182 | Cite as

A Dual-Step and Dual-Process Model of Advertising Effects: Implications for Reducing the Negative Impact of Advertising on Children's Consumption Behaviour

  • Oliver B. BüttnerEmail author
  • Arnd Florack
  • Benjamin G. Serfas
Original Paper


Children are important targets of advertising campaigns from companies. However, children have been found to be particularly vulnerable to negative effects of advertising, and protecting children from these effects is an important task of consumer policy. Two important aspects have to be considered in this task. First, advertising affects judgements and behaviour not only during ad exposure but also in delayed consumption and purchase contexts. Second, advertising operates largely at an implicit level—during ad exposure as well as in consumption decisions. The current article introduces a dual-step (ad exposure vs. purchase/consumption) and dual-process (implicit vs. explicit) model of advertising effects on children. The model is based on a review of implicit advertising effects and implicit mechanisms of self-control. It implies that consumer policies intending to prevent undesired advertising effects should support interventions that strengthen advertising and purchasing literacy and, in addition, implicit self-control mechanisms in children. As self-control in consumption decisions is largely relevant for, and learned during, shopping and consumption, such interventions should focus on educating parents or other primary caregivers because they are the most likely persons to accompany children in such situations and have a great influence on children's implicit learning.


Consumer behaviour Children Advertising Self-control Dual-process models 



This work was supported by a Marie Curie Grant FP7 Integration Grant within the 7th European Union Framework Programme to Oliver B. Büttner (FP7-PEOPLE-2011-CIG 293577).


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliver B. Büttner
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arnd Florack
    • 1
  • Benjamin G. Serfas
    • 1
  1. 1.Applied Social Psychology and Consumer ResearchUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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