Advertisement

Journal of Consumer Policy

, Volume 30, Issue 3, pp 219–239 | Cite as

Fair Trade: Dynamic and Dilemmas of a Market Oriented Global Social Movement

  • John Wilkinson
Original paper

Abstract

Fair Trade is analysed as a new economic social movement to the extent that it is based on new forms of collective action and directs its demands primarily to the market rather than to the State. In addition, it is intrinsically a global movement harnessing development goals to new market relations. It differs, however, from similar movements (organics, animal welfare) to the extent that it focuses primarily on traditional issues of redistributive justice rather than a new generation of rights and duties. Fair Trade is understood as having three components: (i) the organization of alternative trading networks; (ii) the marketing of Fair Trade labelled products through licensed conventional traders and retailers; and (iii) the campaign-based promotion of Fair Trade to change both purchasing practices and the rules of conventional trade. As a market oriented movement, Fair Trade relies crucially on the emergence of a new politicization of consumer activity comprising not only “consumer-activists” but also the State as consumer and a new layer of political consumers sensitive to issues of social justice in their daily purchasing practices.

Keywords

Fair Trade New economic social movement Consumer-oriented social movement Social justice through markets Southern Fair Trade 

Notes

Acknowledgements

I would like to thank the Edelstein Center for Social Research, Rio de Janeiro, the Center for Fair and Alternative Trade Studies, Colorado State University, and colleagues and students working in the research unit “Markets, Networks and Values” of the Brazilian National Research Council (CNPq), which I have the privilege of coordinating, for providing ideal intellectual and material conditions for the development of the reflections contained in this text. Special thanks go to the comments of the editors and reviewers which have led to substantial improvements in the final version of this article.

References

  1. Barratt-Brown, M. (1993). Fair Trade: Reform and realities in the international trading system. London: Zed Books.Google Scholar
  2. Cáceres Benavides, Z. (2006). Civil society and Fair Trade. Rio de Janeiro: The Edelstein Center for Social Research. Research Resources on Internet, Report No.2. http://www.centroedelstein.org.br/english/report.shtml.
  3. Carimentrand, A., & Ballet, J. (2004). Le commerce équitable entre éthique de la consommation et signes de qualité. In Proceedings of the “Congreso Intyernacional Agroindustrial Rural y Territorial,” Toluca, Mexico.Google Scholar
  4. Commene, V. (2005). Responsible consumption: A general presentation. Paper presented at a conference of the European Network for Responsible Consumption (DG SANCO), Aalborg, Denmark, October 6.Google Scholar
  5. Conroy, M. E. (2001). Can advocacy-led certification systems transform global corporate practices? Evidence and some theory. Amherst, MA: University of Massachusetts, Political Economy Research Institute. PERI Working Paper Series, No. 21.Google Scholar
  6. Ctm altromercato (2005). Lettera aperta sull’ inclusione delle grande compagnie transnazionali nel settore del fair trade. www.altromercato.itGoogle Scholar
  7. DFID (2001). DFID and Fair Trade. Draft paper for discussion. London: Department of International Development.Google Scholar
  8. du Toit, A., & Kruger, S. (2007). Reconstructing fairness. In L. Raynolds, D. Murray, & J. Wilkinson (Eds.), Fair Trade: The challenges of transforming globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Fair Trade Federation. (2006). 2005 report: Fair Trade trends in North America and the Pacific Rim. Washington: Fair Trade Federation.Google Scholar
  10. Follesdal, A., & Pogge, T. (Eds.). (2005). Real world justice: Grounds, principles, human rights and social institutions. Dordrecht: Springer.Google Scholar
  11. Gendron, C. (2004). Le commerce équitable: Un nouveau mouvement social économique au cœur d’une autre mondialization. In L. Favreau, G. Larose, & A. Salam Fall (Eds.), Altermondialization, économie et coopération internationale (pp. 158–183). Québec City: Presses de l’Université du Québec.Google Scholar
  12. Gereffi, G. (1994). Commodity chains and global capitalism. Westport, CT: Praeger.Google Scholar
  13. Gide, C. (2001). Cooperation et économie sociale, 1886–1904. Paris: L’Harmattan.Google Scholar
  14. Gosseries, A. (2003). Qu’est-ce qu’un consommateur juste? Louvain-la-Neuve: Université Catholique de Louvain. Working paper.Google Scholar
  15. Habbard, P., Laforge, L., Peeters, A., & Vergriette, B. (2002). Etat de lieux et enjeux du changement d´echelle du commerce équitable. Paris: Solagral.Google Scholar
  16. Henson, S. (2006). The role of public and private standards in the regulation of the international food market. Paper presented at Summer Symposium of the International Agricultural Trade Research Consortium (IATRC), Bonn, Germany, May 28–30.Google Scholar
  17. Jacquiau, C. (2006). Les coulisses du commerce equitable. Paris: Mille et Une Nuits.Google Scholar
  18. Jacquot, P. (2003). Un label réunit producteurs biologiques et équitables. Paris: Novethic. http://www.novethic.fr/novethic/site/article/index.jsp?id=33779
  19. Jaffe, D., Kloppenberg, J. R., & Monroy, M. B. (2004). Bringing the moral charge home: Fair Trade within the North and within the South. Rural Sociology, 69, 169–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Keynes, J. M. (1980). The international control of raw material prices. In A. Robinson & D. E. Moggridge (Eds.), The collected writings of John Maynard Keynes (Vol. 27, p. 131). London: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  21. Krier, J. -M. (2006). Fair Trade in Europe 2005. Brussels: Fair Trade Advocacy Office.Google Scholar
  22. Laville, J. L. (Ed.) (1994). L’ économie solidaire. Une perspective internationale. Paris: Desclée de Brouwer.Google Scholar
  23. Lecomte, T. (2003). Le pari du commerce équitable. Paris: Éditions d’Organisation.Google Scholar
  24. Lernoud, A. P., & Fonseca, M. F. (2004). Proceedings, workshop on alternatives on certification for organic products, April 13–17, Torres-RS-Brazil. Bonn: International Federation of Organic Agricultural Movements.Google Scholar
  25. Micheletti, M. (2003). Political virtue and shopping. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  26. Murray, D., Raynolds, L. T., & Taylor, P. (2003). One cup at a time: Poverty alleviation and Fair Trade coffee in Latin America. Fort Collins, CO: Department of Sociology, Fair Trade Research Group.Google Scholar
  27. Nagayets, O. (2005). Small farms, current status & key trends. Paper presented at The Future of Small Farms Research Workshop, Wye College, June 26–29.Google Scholar
  28. Oppenheim, P. (2005). Fair Trade fats cats. The Spectator, November 5.Google Scholar
  29. Oxfam (2002). Rigged rules and double standards: Trade globalization and the fight against poverty. Oxford: Oxfam. http://www.maketradefair/com/assets/english/report_english/pdf.
  30. Oxford Policy Management. (2000). Fair Trade: Overview, impact, challenges. http://www.opml.cu.uk.
  31. Polanyi, K. (1944). The great transformation. Boston: Beacon.Google Scholar
  32. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Raynolds, L. (2002). Forging new consumer–producer links in Fair Trade coffee networks. Sociologia Ruralis, 42, 389–409.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Redfern, A., & Snedker, P. (2002). Creating market opportunities for small enterprises: Experiences of the Fair Trade movement. Geneva: International Labour Office. SEED Working Paper No. 30.Google Scholar
  35. Renard, M.-C. (1999). The interstices of globalization. The example of fair coffee. Sociologia Ruralis, 39, 484–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Rochefort, R. (1997). Le consommateur entrepreneur. Paris: Editions Odile Jacob.Google Scholar
  37. Roozen, N., & VanderHoff, N. (2002). La Aventura del comercio justo: Una alternativa de globalización por los fundadores de Max Havelaar. México, DF: Editorial El Atajo.Google Scholar
  38. Smith, S., & Barrientos, S. (2005). Fair Trade and ethical trade: Are there moves towards convergences? Sustainable Development, 13, 190–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tallontire, A. (2001). Challenges facing Fair Trade: Which way now? Paper presented at the DSA Conference “Different Poverties, Different Policies,” IDPM, Manchester, September 10–12.Google Scholar
  40. Tallontire, A., & Vorley, B. (2005). Achieving fairness in trading between supermarkets and their agrofood supply chains. London: UK Food Group Briefing. UKFG Briefing Paper.Google Scholar
  41. Toffler, A. (1980). The third wave. New York: Bantam Books.Google Scholar
  42. Van Parijs, P. (2002). What is a just nation, a just world, a just enterprise? Enwisdomization Journal, 2(1), 14–25.Google Scholar
  43. Wilkinson, J., & Mascarenhas, G. (2007). The making of Fair Trade in the South: The Brazilian case. In L. Raynolds, D. Murray, & J. Wilkinson (Eds.), Fair Trade: The challenges of transforming globalization. London: Routledge.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate Centre: Development, Agriculture and SocietyRural Federal University, Rio de JaneiroRio de JaneiroBrazil

Personalised recommendations