Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 7, pp 1135–1146 | Cite as

Integrative Body–Mind–Spirit (I-BMS) Practices for Schizophrenia: An Outcome Literature Review on Randomized Controlled Trials

  • Xiafei WangEmail author
  • James Beauchemin
  • Chang Liu
  • Mo Yee Lee
Original Paper


Prior reviews show that certain complementary and alternative practices are promising for patients with schizophrenia. The aim of this study is to review the outcome literature on intervention studies using integrative body–mind–spirit (I-BMS) practices on schizophrenia. This is an outcome literature review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on I-BMS practices from 2004 to 2016. The review used a modified Delphi List to assess methodological rigor and the California Evidence-Based Clearinghouse Scientific Rating Scale to evaluate the level of research support for each identified I-BMS practice. This review identified 13 RCTs of I-BMS practices, including mindfulness interventions (5), yoga (3), tai-chi (2), and relaxation (3). I-BMS practices were effective with medium to large effect sizes for alleviating symptoms, decreasing anxiety and stress, improving insight and mindfulness, subjective well-being and social/occupational functioning, as well as decreasing the frequency and duration of re-hospitalization. This review expands the knowledge base of treatment effectiveness pertaining to patients with schizophrenia.


Integrative body–mind–spirit practice Schizophrenia Outcome literature review 



This research is supported by 2013–2014 National Association of Deans and Director in Social Work (NADD) Development Fund in Graduate Social Work Education received by Dr. Mo Yee Lee.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals and human participants performed by any of the authors.

Informed Consent

The authors understand that the paper is subject to editing for clarity, elimination of redundancies, and conformity with APA style.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Social WorkThe David B. Falk College of Sport and Human Dynamics at Syracuse UniversitySyracuseUSA
  2. 2.Boise State UniversityBoiseUSA
  3. 3.College of Social WorkThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

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