Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 144–155 | Cite as

Subjective Well-Being of Afghan Refugees in Pakistan: The Moderating Role of Perceived Control in Married Men

  • Tahira Jibeen
Original Paper
  • 87 Downloads

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of perceived control in moderating the effects of acculturative stress on the well-being of first generation Afghan married men refugees (N = 137, 25–50 years) residing in Lahore, Pakistan. The participants completed a survey questionnaire comprising a demographic information sheet, the Multidimensional Acculturative Stress Scale (Jibeen, Khalid, International Journal of Intercultural Relations 34:233–243, 2010), the Cognitive Stress Scale (Cohen et al., Journal of Health and Social Behavior 24:385–396, 1983), the Positive Affect & Negative Affect Schedule (Watson et al., Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 47:1063–1070, 1988), and the Satisfaction with Life Scale (Diener et al., Journal of Personality Assessment 49:1–5, 1985). The results of moderated regression analyses revealed that perceived control can reduce the effect of stressful circumstances on satisfaction with life and increase positive psychological affect. The results could have implications for developing social and clinical therapeutic interventions towards a greater sense of self-determination and positive well-being to improve the refugees’ ability to take control of their lives.

Keywords

Afghan refugees Acculturative stress Subjective well-being Perceived control Satisfaction with life Negative affect 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Andrews, F. M., & Withey, S. B. (1976). Social indicators of well-being: American’s perception of life quality. New York: Plenum.Google Scholar
  2. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change. Psychological Review, 84, 191–215.Google Scholar
  3. Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26.Google Scholar
  4. Beiser, M. (1991). The mental health of refugees in resettlement countries. In H. Adelman (Ed.), Refugee policy: Canada and the United States (pp. 425–442). Toronto: York Lanes Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beiser, M. (1999). Strangers at the gate: The “boat people’s” first ten years in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  6. Beiser, M., & Hou, F. (2001). Language acquisition, unemployment and depressive disorder among Southeast Asian refugees: A 10-year study. Social Science & Medicine, 53(10), 1321–1334.Google Scholar
  7. Beiser, M., Simich, L., Pandalangat, N., Nowakowski, M., & Tian, F. (2011). Stresses of passage, balms of resettlement and PTSD among Sri Lankan Tamils in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 56(6), 333–340.Google Scholar
  8. Berry, J. W. (1990). Psychology of acculturation. In J. Berman (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation, 1989: Cross-cultural perspectives. Current theory and research on motivation, Vol. 37 (pp. 201–234). Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  9. Berry, J. W. (2005). Acculturation: Living successfully in two cultures. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 29, 697–712.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2005.07.013.Google Scholar
  10. Berry, J. W., Kim, U., Minde, T., & Mok, D. (1987). Comparative studies of acculturative stress. International Migration Review, 21, 491–511.  https://doi.org/10.2307/2546607.Google Scholar
  11. Berry, J. W., Poortinga, Y. H., Segall, M. H., & Dasen, P. R. (2002). Cross-cultural psychology: Research and applications (2nd edn.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Betancourt, T. S., Abdi, S., Ito, B. S., Lilienthal, G. M., Agalab, N., & Ellis, H. (2015). We left one war and came to another: Resource loss, acculturative stress, and caregiver-child relationships in Somali refugee families. Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21(1), 114–125.  https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037538.Google Scholar
  13. Bhugra, D., Craig, T., & Bhui, K. (2010). The mental health of refugees and asylum seekers. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Briggs, L., & Macleod, A. (2006). Demoralization-A useful conceptualization of non-specific psychological distress among refugees attending mental health services. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 52(6), 512–524.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0020764006066832.Google Scholar
  15. Brislin, R. W. (1980). Translation and content analysis of oral and written materials. In H. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (pp. 389–444). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
  16. Brislin, R. W., Lonner, W. J., & Throndike, R. M. (1973). Cross cultural research methods. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  17. Church, A. T. (1982). Sojourner adjustment. Psychological Bulletin, 91, 540–572.Google Scholar
  18. Cohen, S. (1980). After-effects of stress on human performance and social behavior: A review of research and theory. Psychological Bullefin, 88, 82–108.Google Scholar
  19. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of cognitive stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385–396.Google Scholar
  20. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49, 1–5.Google Scholar
  21. Diener, E., Suh, E., & Oishi, S. (1997). Recent findings on subjective well being. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 24, 25–41.Google Scholar
  22. Diwan, S., Jonnalagadda, S. S., & Balaswamy, S. (2004). Resources predicting positive and negative affect during the experience of stress: A study of older Asian Indian immigrants in The United States. The Gerontologist, 44(5), 605–614.  https://doi.org/10.1093/geront/44.5.605.Google Scholar
  23. Dyal, J. A. (1984). Cross-cultural research with the locus of control constructs. In H. M. Lefcourt (Ed.), Research with the locus of control constructs (pp. 209–306). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  24. Dzeamesi, M. (2008). Refugees, the UNHCR and host governments as stake‐holders in the transformation of refugee communities: A study into the Buduburam refugee camp in Ghana. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 4(1), 28–41.  https://doi.org/10.1108/17479894200800004.Google Scholar
  25. Ehntholt, K. A., & Yule, W. (2006). Practitioner review: Assessment and treatment of refugee children and adolescents who have experienced war-related trauma. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 47(12), 1197–1210.Google Scholar
  26. Feyissa, A., & Horn, R. (2008). There is more than one way of dying: An Ethiopian perspective on the effects of long- term tays in refugee camps. In: D. Hollenbach (Ed) Refugee rights: Ethics, advocacy and Africa. Washington D.C.: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Glass, D. C., & Singer, J. E. (1972). Urban stress: Experiments on noise and social stressors. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Guerin, P., & Guerin, B. (2007). Families, communities and migration: What exactly changes? University of Waikato-New Zealand. Retrieved http://www.waikato.ac.nz/wfass/migration/docs/guerin-families communitiesmigration.pdf.
  29. Holmes, T. H., & Rahe, R. H. (1967). The social readjustment rating scale. Journal of Psychosomtic Research, 11(2), 213–221.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3999(67)90010-4.Google Scholar
  30. Horn, R. (2009). A study of the emotional and psychological well-being of refugees in kakuma refugee camp, Kenya. International Journal of Migration, Health and Social Care, 5(4), 20–32.  https://doi.org/10.5042/ijmhsc.2010.0229.Google Scholar
  31. Huebner, E. S., & Dew, T. (1996). The interrelationship of positive affect, negative affect, and life satisfaction in an adolescent sample. Social Indicators Research, 38, 129–137.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00300455.Google Scholar
  32. Hui, C. H. (1982). Locus of control: A review of cross-cultural research. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 6, 301–323.Google Scholar
  33. Jibeen, T., & Khalid, R. (2010). Development and preliminary validation of multidimensional acculturative stress scale for Pakistani immigrants in Toronto, Canada. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 34, 233–243.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijintrel.2009.09.006.Google Scholar
  34. Kassam, A., & Nanji, A. (2006). Mental health of Afghan refugees in Pakistan: A qualitative rapid reconnaissance field study Intervention. Retrieved from http://www.ourmediaourselves.com/archives/41pdf/kassam.pdf.
  35. Kim, M. T. (2002). Measuring depression among Korean Americans: Development of the Kim Depression Scale for Korean Americans. Journal of Trans cultural Nursing, 13, 110–118.  https://doi.org/10.1177/104365960201300203.Google Scholar
  36. Kinzie, J. D. (2013). The traumatic lives of refugees and asylum seekers. GP Solo, 30(5), 42–44.Google Scholar
  37. Kramer, S. (2006). Forced migration and mental health in rethinking the care of refugees and displaced persons. In D. Ingleby (Ed.), Getting closer: Methods of research with refugees and asylum seekers (pp. 129–148). Netherlands: Springer.Google Scholar
  38. Laban, C. J., Gernaat, H. B., Komproe, I. H., van der Tweel I., & De Jong, J. T. (2005). Postmigration living problems and common psychiatric disorders in Iraqi asylum seekers in the Netherlands. Journal of Nervous & Mental Disease, 193(12), 825–832.Google Scholar
  39. Lee, D. L., & Ahn, S. (2012). Discrimination against Latina/os: A meta-analysis of individual-level resources and outcomes. The Counseling Psychologist, 40, 28–65.Google Scholar
  40. Lee, J. S., Koeske, G. F., & Sales, E. (2004). Social support buffering of acculturative stress: A study of mental health symptoms among Korean international students. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 28, 399–414.Google Scholar
  41. Lee, R. M. (2005). Resilience against discrimination: Ethnic identity and other-group orientation as protective factors for Korean Americans. ‎Journal of Counseling Psychology, 52(10), 36–44.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0167.52.1.36.Google Scholar
  42. Leung, C. (2001). The psychological adaptation of overseas and migrant students in Australia. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 36(4), 251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207590143000018.Google Scholar
  43. Liebkind, K. (1996). Acculturation and stress: Vietnamese refugees in Finland. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 27, 161–180.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022196272002.Google Scholar
  44. Lindert, J., Ehrenstein, O. S., Priebe, S., Mielck, A., & Brahler, E. (2009). Depression and anxiety in labor migrants and refugees-A systematic review and meta-analysis. Social Science & Medicine, 69(2), 246–257.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.04.032.Google Scholar
  45. Luszczynska, A., Gutierrez-Dona, B., & Schwarzer, R. (2005). General self-efficacy in various domains of human functioning: Evidence from five countries. International Journal of Psychology, 40, 80–89.  https://doi.org/10.1080/00207590444000041.Google Scholar
  46. Luthar, S. S., Cicchetti, D., & Becker, B. (2000). Research on resilience: Response to commentaries. Child Development, 71, 573–575.Google Scholar
  47. Maundeni, T. (2001). The role of social networks in the adjustment of African students to British society: Students’ perceptions. Race, Ethnicity and Education, 4(3), 253–276.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13613320120073576.Google Scholar
  48. Maxwell, S. E. (2004). The persistence of underpowered studies in psychological research: Causes, consequences, and remedies. Psychological Methods, 9, 147–163.  https://doi.org/10.1037/1082-989X.9.2.147.Google Scholar
  49. McLachlan, D. A., & Justice, J. (2009). A grounded theory of international student well-being. Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, 13(1), 27–32.Google Scholar
  50. Measham, T., Rousseau, C., & Nadeau, L. (2005). The development and therapeutic modalities of a transcultural child psychiatry service. The Canadian Child and Adolescent Psychiatry Review, 14(3), 68–72.Google Scholar
  51. Miller, K. E., & Rasco, L. M. (Eds.). (2004). The mental health of refugees: Ecological approaches to healing and adaptation. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  52. Miller, K. E., & Rasmussen, A. (2010). War exposure, daily stressors, and mental health in conflict and post-conflict settings: bridging the divide between trauma-focused and psychosocial frameworks. Social Science & Medicine, 70(1), 7–16.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.09.02.Google Scholar
  53. Mollica, R. F., Brooks, R., Tor, S., Lopes-Cardozo, B., & Silove, D. (2014). The enduring mental health impact of mass violence: A community comparison study of Cambodian civilians living in Cambodia and Thailand. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 60(1), 6–20.Google Scholar
  54. Ondeko, R., & Purdin, S. (2004). Understanding the causes of gender-based violence. Forced Migration Review, 19, 1–30.Google Scholar
  55. Payne, L. (1998). Food shortage and gender relations in Ikafe settlement, Uganda. Gender and Development, 6, 30–36.Google Scholar
  56. Poyrazli, S., Thukral, R. K., & Duru, E. (2010). International student’s race-ethnicity, personality, and acculturative stress. Journal of Psychology and Counseling, 2(8), 25–32.Google Scholar
  57. Rothe, E., & Pumariega, J. B. (2005). Mental health of immigrants and refugees. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(5), 581–597.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10597-005-6363-1.Google Scholar
  58. Ruiz, P., & Bhugra, D. (2010). Refugees and asylum seekers: Conceptual issues. In D. Bhugra, T. Craig & K. Bhui (Eds.), Mental health of refugees and asylum seekers (pp. 1–8). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Safdar, S., Struthers, W., & van Oudenhoven, J. P. (2009). Acculturation of Iranians in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 40(3), 468–491.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022022108330990.Google Scholar
  60. Sam, D. L., & Berry, J. W. (2016). The Cambridge handbook of acculturation psychology (2nd edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Schrijvers, J. (1997). Internal refugees in Sri Lanka: The interplay of ethnicity and gender. European Journal of Development Research, 9, 62–82.Google Scholar
  62. Sue, S., Zane, N., Nagayama, G. C., & Berger, L. K. (2009). The case for cultural competency in psychotherapeuticinterventions. Annual Review of Psychology, 60, 525–548.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.60.110707.163651.Google Scholar
  63. Tamang, R. (2009). Afghan forced migration: Reaffirmation, redefinition, and the politics of aid. Asian Social Science, 5(1), 3–12Google Scholar
  64. Tartakovsky, T. (2013). Immigration: Policies, challenges and impact. Hauppauge: Nova Science.Google Scholar
  65. Tiburg, M. V., & Vingerhoets, A. (2007). Psychological aspects of geographical moves: Homesickness and acculturation. Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  66. Uba, L. (1994). Asian Americans: Personality patterns, identity, and mental health. New York: Gulford Press.Google Scholar
  67. United Nations High Commission of Refugees. (2015). Facts and figure about refugees. Retrieved from http://www.unhcr.org.uk/about-us/key-facts-and-figures.html.
  68. Van Selm, K., Sam, D. L., & Van Oudenhoven, J. P. (1997). Life satisfaction and competence of Bosnian refugees in Norway. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 38(2), 143–149.Google Scholar
  69. Vukojeviu, V., Kuburiu, Z. & Damjanoviu, A. (2016). The influence of perceived discrimination, sense of control, self-esteem and multiple discrepancies on the mental health and subjective well-being in Serbian immigrants in Canada. Psihologija, 49(2), 105–127.Google Scholar
  70. Ward, C., & Kennedy, A. (1992). Locus of control, mood disturbance and social difficulty during cross-cultural transitions. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 16, 175–194.Google Scholar
  71. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS Scales. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 47, 1063–1070.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.54.6.1063.Google Scholar
  72. Wei, M., Ku, T., Russell, D. W., & Mallinckrodt, B. (2008). Moderating effects of three coping strategies and self-esteem on perceived discrimination and depressive symptoms: A minority stress model for Asian international students. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 55(4), 451–462.Google Scholar
  73. Wessels, M., & Monteiro, C. (2004). Internally displaced Angolans: A child-focused, community based intervention. In K. E. Miller & L. M. Rasco (Eds.), The mental health of refugees: Ecological approaches to healing and adaptation. Mahwah: Lawrence Erlbaoum.Google Scholar
  74. Williams, C. L., & Berry, J. W. (1991). Primary prevention of acculturative stress among refugees: Application of psychological theory and practice. American Psychologist, 46, 632–641.Google Scholar
  75. Yakushko, O., Watson, M., & Thompson, S. (2008). Stress and coping in the lives of recent immigrants and refugees: Considerations for counseling. International Journal for the Advancement of Counseling, 30, 167–178.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10447-008-9054-0.Google Scholar
  76. Yamaguchi, Y., & Wiseman, R. L. (2003). Locus of control, self-construals, intercultural communication effectiveness, and psychological health of international students in the United States. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 32(4), 227–245.Google Scholar
  77. Yongseok, K. (2002). The role of perceived control in moderating the effect of stressful circumstances among Korean immigrants. Health & Social Work, 27(1), 36–46.Google Scholar
  78. Young, M. Y. (2001). Moderators of stress in Salvadoran refugees: The role of personal and social resources. International Migration Review, 35(3), 840–869.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologySchool of Social Sciences and HumanitiesLahorePakistan

Personalised recommendations