Should Traffic Offenders Undergo Compulsory “Mental Test”: A Study of Mental Health and Crash Involvement Among Commercial Motorcyclists in Ibadan, Nigeria?
- 42 Downloads
Government policies on commercial motorcycle crash prevention are often not driven by data in terms of mental health risks. In this cross-sectional study, data was obtained from 508 commercial motorcyclists (CMs) in Ibadan, Nigeria on psychological distress, personality, suicidality, impulsivity, substance use and Intelligence Quotient, to determine the mental health correlates of road crash involvement. One-month and 12-month accident rates were 7.9 and 28.9% respectively. One-month crash involvement was independently associated with helmet non-use (OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.1–4.7, p = 0.03) and poor knowledge of road signs (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.2–5.3, p = 0.02). The odds of 12-month crash involvement was increased among lifetime users of alcohol (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.3–3.0, p = 0.001) and those with fewer than two children (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.3, p = 0.006), but was reduced among riders with primary school education (OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1–0.7, p = 0.007). Crash involvement rate in this population is high. Results from the study do not support routine psychiatric evaluation for traffic offenders, but are more in favour of safety education and traffic law enforcement.
KeywordsRoad traffic crash Commercial motorcyclists Mental health Accident prevention Nigeria
The authors wish to acknowledge the following for their help in data collection and analysis: Drs Odunleye M, Ojediran B, Adeyefa BH, Abdulrahaman H, Medubi O, Akanni SO and Mrs Ayinde OA, all of the University College Hospital, Ibadan. The authors also wish to acknowledge all the commercial motorcyclists who participated in the study.
This study was supported by the Medical Education Partnership Initiative in Nigeria (MEPIN) project funded by Fogarty International Centre, the Office of AIDS Research, and the National Human Genome Research Institute of the National Institute of Health, the Health Resources and Services Administration (HRSA) and the Office of the U.S. Global AIDS Coordinator under Award Number R24TW008878. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the funding organizations.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Ethical approval was obtained from the joint University of Ibadan/University College Hospital Ethical Review Committee.
Informed consent obtained from the study participants.
- Adayonfo, E. O., & Akanni, O. O. (2015). Psychological distress among Nigerian undergraduate students. Ife Psychologia, 23(2), 97.Google Scholar
- Adogu, P., Ilika, A., & Asuzu, A. (2009). Predictors of road traffic accident, road traffic injury and death among commercial motorcyclists in an urban area of Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Medicine: Journal of the National Association of Resident Doctors of Nigeria, 18(4), 393–397.Google Scholar
- El Farouki, K., Lagarde, E., Orriols, L., Bouvard, M.-P., Contrand, B., & Galéra, C. (2014). The increased risk of road crashes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) adult drivers: Driven by distraction? Results from a responsibility case-control study. PLoS ONE, 9(12), e115002. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Esan, O., Adeoye, A., Onakoya, P., Opeodu, O., Owonikoko, K., Olulana, D., et al. (2014). Features of residency training and psychological distress among residents in a Nigerian teaching hospital. South African Journal of Psychiatry, 20(2), 46–50. https://doi.org/10.7196/SAJP.426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Federal Republic of Nigeria. (2004). National road traffic regulations. Lagos: Federal Government Press.Google Scholar
- Goldberg, D., & Williams, P. (1988). A user’s guide to the GHQ. Windsor: NFER-Nelson.Google Scholar
- Gureje, O., Degenhardt, L., Olley, B., Uwakwe, R., Udofia, O., Wakil, A., et al. (2007). A descriptive epidemiology of substance use and substance use disorders in Nigeria during the early 21st century. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 91(1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2007.04.010.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ibadan Development Association. (2018). Ibadan Development Association Home page. ibadanlanda. Retrieved May 1, 2018, from http://ibadanlanda.org/Local_Government.html.
- International Road Federation. (2011). Rural transport-Volume 2. Retrieved June 6, 2012, from http://www.irfnet.org/files-upload/pdf-files/IRF%20bulletin.pdf.
- Johnson, O. E., & Adebayo, A. (2011). Effect of safety education on knowledge of and compliance with road safety signs among commercial motorcyclists in Uyo, Southern Nigeria. Ghana Medical Journal, 45(3), 89–96.Google Scholar
- Kieling, R. R., Szobot, C. M., Matte, B., Coelho, R. S., Kieling, C., Pechansky, F., & Rohde, L. A. (2011). Mental disorders and delivery motorcycle drivers (motoboys): A dangerous association. European Psychiatry: The Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists, 26(1), 23–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eurpsy.2010.03.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Lagos State of Nigeria. A law to provide for Road Traffic Administration and make provisions for Road Traffic and Vehicle Inspection in Lagos State and other connected purposes, Pub. L. No. 4 (2012). https://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=7&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwityfzi_vPNAhWUF8AKHfjyCvwQFgg8MAY&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.nigeria-law.org%2FLegislation%2FLaws%2520of%2520the%2520States%2FLagos%2520State%2FLagos%2520State%2520Road%2520Traffic%2520Law%25202012.pdf&usg=AFQjCNGlHmx0-X3Qf9cfN5Iqq0s7vMFYFA.
- Lasebikan, V., & Ayinde, O. (2012). Rapid situation assessments of alcohol and substance use among commercial drivers in Nigeria. East African Medical Journal, 89(11), 663–63/1.Google Scholar
- Lasebikan, V., & Ige, O. (2016). Suicidality in tuberculosis patients and their non-tuberculosis family contacts in Nigeria. Mental Health in Family Medicine, 12, 100–109Google Scholar
- Nada-Raja, S., Langely, J. D., McGee, R., Williams, S. M., Begg, D. J., & Reeder, A. I. (1997). Inattentive and hyperactive behaviors and driving offenses in adolescence. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, 36(4), 515–522. https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-199704000-00014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Raven, J. C. (1958). Standard progressive matrices. H. K. Lewis and Co.Google Scholar
- RUAF foundation (2010) Ibadan (Nigeria) | RUAF - Resource Centres on Urban Agriculture and Food Security Online. http://www.ruaf.org/node/1517.
- Sabey, B., & Taylor, H. (1980). The known risks we run: The highway. Transport and Road Research Laboratory. Retrieved June 7, 2012, from http://www.trl.co.uk/online_store/reports_publications/trl_reports/cat_road_user_safety/report_the_known_risks_we_run_the_highway.htm.
- Sadeghi-Bazargani, H., Abedi, L., Mahini, M., Amiri, S., & Khorasani-Zavareh, D. (2015). Adult attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, risky behaviors, and motorcycle injuries: A case-control study. Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment, 11, 2049–2054. https://doi.org/10.2147/NDT.S87614.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Santikarn, C., Santijiarakul, S., & Rujivipat, V. (2002). The 2nd phase of the injury surveillance in Thailand. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Measuring the Burden of Injury, Montreal, 16–17 May 2002 (pp. 77–86).Google Scholar
- Trimpop, R. (1994). The psychology of risk taking behavior. London: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- World Health Organisation. (2010). The ASSIST-linked brief intervention for hazardous and harmful substance use: A manual for use in primary care. Geneva: WHO. Retrieved December 6, 2012, from https://extranet.who.int/iris/restricted/handle/10665/44321.
- World Health Organisation. (2013). Road safety in the WHO African region-the facts 2013. Switzerland, Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- Zamani-Alavijeh, F., Niknami, S., Bazargan, M., Mohamadi, E., Montazeri, A., Ghofranipour, F., et al. (2010). Risk-taking behaviors among motorcyclists in middle east countries: A case of islamic republic of Iran. Traffic Injury Prevention, 11(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389580903330355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zamani-Alavijeh, F., Niknami, S., Bazargan, M., Mohammadi, E., Montazeri, A., Ahmadi, F., & Ghofranipour, F. (2009). Accident-related risk behaviors associated with motivations for motorcycle use in Iran: A country with very high traffic deaths. Traffic Injury Prevention, 10(3), 237–242. https://doi.org/10.1080/15389580902822717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar