Preventing Youth from Falling Through the Cracks Between Child/Adolescent and Adult Mental Health Services: A Systematic Review of Models of Care
- 1.7k Downloads
Optimizing the transition between child and adolescent mental health services (CAMHS) and adult mental health services (AMHS) is a priority for healthcare systems. The purpose of this systematic review is to: (1) identify and compare models of care that may be used to facilitate the transition from CAMHS to AMHS; and (2) discuss trends and implications to inform future research and practice. Results identified three models of care which move beyond healthcare services and incorporate a broader range of services that better meet the dynamic needs of transition-aged youth. Joint working among providers, coupled with individualized approaches, is essential to facilitating continuity of care.
KeywordsTransition Mental health Adolescent Child development Systematic review Health services research
This study was funded by the Government of Ontario through a Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care Health System Research Fund grant entitled ‘Harnessing Evidence and Values for Health System Excellence’. The views expressed in this manuscript are the views of the authors and should not be taken to represent the views of the Government of Ontario. The first author would like to acknowledge support from the Canadian Institutes of Health Research Doctoral Scholarship (2013–2016) and Postdoctoral Fellowship (2016–2019). The authors would like to acknowledge the support and feedback we have received from other Transitions study research team members: Patricia Wakefield, Ashleigh Miatello, and Christopher Longo. We also thank our Research Services Librarian Jeannie An. Most importantly, thank you to our Steering Committee members for their generosity in sharing their time and expertise.
This study was funded the Government of Ontario through a Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care Health System Research Fund grant entitled ‘Harnessing Evidence and Values for Health System Excellence’. The funding source had no role in the design and conduct of the study; collection, management, analysis, and interpretation of the data; preparation, review, or approval of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
All authors declare no conflict of interest.
- Carver, J., Cappelli, M., Davidson, S., Caldwell, W., Belair, M.A., & Vloet, M. (2015). Taking the next step forward: Building a responsive mental health and addictions system for emerging adults. Ottawa: Mental Health Commission of Canada.Google Scholar
- Certo, N., Mautz, D., Pumpian, I., Sax, C., Smalley, K., Wade, H. A., Noyes, D., Luecking, R., Wechsler, J., & Batterman, N. (2003). Review and discussion of a model for seamless transition to adulthood. Education and Training in Developmental Disabilities, 38(1), 3–17.Google Scholar
- Clarke, H. B. (2005). Transition to independence process (TIP) system: A community-based model for improving the outcomes of youth and young adults with EBD. National Network on Youth Transition for Behavioural Health. Retrieved from http://tipstars.org/Portals/0/pdf/TIP Model Overview.pdf.
- Clarke, H. B. (2012). TIP model definition & guidelines for improving the progress & outcomes with youth & young adults, (Vols. 1–12). Retrieved from http://www.evidencebasedassociates.com/news_insights/dc-summit-12-presentations/Clark.pdf.
- Davidson, P., Halcomb, E., Hickman, L., Phillips, J., & Graham, B. (2006). Beyond the rhetoric: what do we mean by a “model of care”? The Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing: A Quarterly Publication of the Royal Australian Nursing Federation, 23(3), 47–55.Google Scholar
- Davidson S, Cappelli, M. (2011). We’ve got growing up to do: Transitioning youth from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services. Ontario Centre of Excellence for Child and Youth Mental Health.Google Scholar
- Embrett, M. G., Randall, G. E., Longo, C. J., Nguyen, N., & Mulvale, G. (2015). Effectiveness of health system services and programs for youth to adult transitions in mental health care: A systematic review of academic literature. Administration and Policy in Mental Health Research and Mental Health Services Research, 42, (Vols. 1–11). doi: 10.1007/s10488-015-0638-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ezzati, M., Lopez, A. D., Rodgers, A., & Murray, C.J.L. (2004). Comparative quantification of health risks: global and regional burden of disease due to selected major risk factors (Vol. 1). Geneva: WHO.Google Scholar
- Gorter, J. W., Stewart, D., Woodbury Smith, M., King, G., Wrigt, M., Nguyen, T., Freeman, M., & Swinton, M. (2014). Pathways Toward Positive Psychosocial Outcomes and Mental Health for Youth with Disabilities: A Knowledge Synthesis of Developmental Trajectories. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 33(1), 45–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Gorter, J. W., Stewart, D., Cohen, E., Hlyva, O., Morrison, A., Galuppi, B., Nguyen, T., Amaria, K., & Punthakee, Z. (2015). Are two youth-focused interventions sufficient to empower youth with chronic health conditions in their transition to adult healthcare: A mixed-methods longitudinal prospective cohort study. BMJ Open, 5, e007553. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2014-007553.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Haber, M. G., Karpur, A., Deschênes, N., & Clark, H. B. (2008). Predicting improvement of transitioning young people in the partnerships for youth transition initiative: findings from a multisite demonstration. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35(4), 488–513. doi: 10.1007/s11414-008-9126-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hamdani, Y., Jetha, A., & Norman, C. (2011). Systems thinking perspectives applied to healthcare transition for youth with disabilities: a paradigm shift for practice, policy and research. Child: care, health and development, 37(6), 806–814.Google Scholar
- Kmet, L.M., Lee, R.C. & Cook, L.S. (2004). Standard quality assessment criteria for evaluating primary research papers from a variety of fields. Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research.Google Scholar
- Kutcher, S., & McLuckie, A. (2013). Evergreen: Creating a Child and Youth Mental Health Framework for Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada.Google Scholar
- Lavis, J. N., Rottingen, J. A., Bosch-Capblanch, X., Atun, R., El-Jardali, F., Gilson, L., Lewin, S., Oliver, S., Ongolo-Zogo, P., & Haines, A. (2012). Guidance for evidence-informed policies about health systems: linking guidance development to policy development. PLoS Medicine, 9(3), e1001186. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001186.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Luecking, R. G., & Certo, N. (2003). Integrating service systems at the point of transition for youth with significant support needs: A model that works. American Rehabilitation, 27(1), 2–9.Google Scholar
- McConachie, H., Hoole, S., & LeCouteur, A. S. (2011). Improving mental health transitions for young people with autism spectrum disorder. Child, 37, 764–766.Google Scholar
- McLaren, S., Belling, R., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., Weaver, T., Hovish, K., Islam, Z., White, S., & Singh, S. P. (2013). “Talking a different language”: an exploration of the influence of organizational cultures and working practices on transition from child to adult mental health services. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 254. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-254.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Munson, M. R., Jaccard, J., Smalling, S. E., Kim, H., Werner, J. J., & Scott, L. D. (2012). Static, dynamic, integrated, and contextualized: A framework for understanding mental health service utilization among young adults. Social Science & Medicine, 75(8), 1441–1449. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2012.05.039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen, T, & Baptiste, S. (2014a). Innovative Practice: Exploring acculturation theory to advance rehabilitation from pediatric to adult “cultures” of care. Disability and Rehabilitation, Early online 1–8. doi:10.3109/09638288.2014.932443.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, T., & Baptiste, S. (2014b). An innovative lens for comprehending the human experience in society: An analysis of acculturation. In J. Merton (Ed.), Acculturation: Psychology, processes and global perspectives, pp. 105–205). New York: Nova Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, T., & Gorter, J. W. (2014). Use of the international classification of functioning, disability and health as a framework for transition from paediatric to adult healthcare. Child, 40(6), 759–761.Google Scholar
- Orygen Youth Health. (2010). Retrieved from http://oyh.org.au.
- Paul, M., Street, C., Wheeler, N., & Singh, S. P. (2014). Transition to adult services for young people with mental health needs: A systematic review. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 1–22. doi: 10.1177/1359104514526603. (published online ahead of print April 7, 2014).
- Pottick, K. J., Bilder, S., Vander Stoep, A., Warner, L. A., & Alvarez, M. F. (2008). US patterns of mental health service utilization for transition-age youth and young adults. The Journal of Behavioral Health Services & Research, 35(4), 373–389. doi: 10.1007/s11414-007-9080-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Randall, G. E., Mulvale, G. M., Wakefield, P. A., Embrett, M. G., Barr, N. G., Miatello, A. M., Longo, C. J., Nguyen, T., Di Rezze, B. M., Vania, D. K., McRae, S. A. (2016). Mapping the policy to practice landscape for youth mental health in Ontario: A report from the “youth to adult transitions in health care—the case of mental health services in Ontario” research team. Prepared for the Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-Term Care.Google Scholar
- Rosen, D. S., Blum, R. W., Britto, M., Sawyer, S., & Siegel, D. (2003). Transition to adult health care for adolescents and young adults with chronic conditions: Position paper of the Society for Adolescent Medicine. Journal of Adolescent Health, 33, 309–311. doi: 10.1016/1054-139X(93)90143-D.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh, S. P., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., McLaren, S., Hovish, K., Islam, Z., Belling, R., & White, S. (2010). Process, outcome and experience of transition from child to adult mental healthcare: Multiperspective study. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 197(4), 305–312.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh, S. P., Paul, M., Ford, T., Kramer, T., & Weaver, T. (2008). Transitions of care from child and adolescent mental health services to adult mental health services (TRACK Study): a study of protocols in Greater London. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 135. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-8-135.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Swift, K. D., Sayal, K., & Hollis, C. (2014). ADHD and transitions to adult mental health services: a scoping review. Child: care, health and development, 40(6), 775–786.Google Scholar
- While, A., Forbes, A., Ullman, R., Lewis, S., Mathes, L., & Griffiths, P. (2004). Good practices that address continuity during transition from child to adult care: synthesis of the evidence. Child, 30(5), 439–452.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2009). Global health risks: mortality and burden of disease attributable to selected major risks. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar