Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 52, Issue 8, pp 983–988 | Cite as

A Comparison of Self-Rated and Female Partner-Rated Scales in the Assessment of Paternal Prenatal Depression

  • Mizuho Konishi
  • Yoshiyuki Tachibana
  • Julian Tang
  • Kenji Takehara
  • Takahiko Kubo
  • Keiji Hashimoto
  • Hiroshi Kitazawa
  • Hirohisa Saito
  • Yukihiro Ohya
Brief Report


Maternal depression has been widely studied but paternal depression is often overlooked. Depression in men is generally more difficult to detect as the symptoms are not apparent. Furthermore, Japanese couples tend to suppress their real emotions to avoid confrontation. We aimed to investigate the reliability and validity of the K6, K10 and PHQ-9 in assessing the mental health status of men when used by their pregnant partners, as well as the prevalence of paternal prenatal depression in a Japanese study sample. A total of 136 couples participated in this study. The prevalence of paternal prenatal depression reported by the men themselves was higher compared to that reported by their female partners (K6, 10.3 %; K10, 6.6 %; PHQ-9, 3.7 % vs. K6-FP, 2.2 %; K10-FP, 1.5 %; PHQ-9-FP, 0 %, respectively). Mental health issues in men may not be accurately rated by their female partners, suggesting the importance of self-rating and direct consultation.


K6 K10 PHQ-9 Paternal depression Partner-rating 



The authors would like to thank the participants of the study. The authors also thank Kiwako Yamamoto M.D. for her advice on the interpretation of results and Yoshiko Kato, Mika Sasaki and Tomoko Miyazaki, for assistance with instrumentation. This study was supported by a Grant for Japan Environment & Children’s Study from the Ministry of the Environment.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors confirm that there are no known conflicts of interest associated with this study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mizuho Konishi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yoshiyuki Tachibana
    • 1
    • 2
  • Julian Tang
    • 3
  • Kenji Takehara
    • 4
  • Takahiko Kubo
    • 5
  • Keiji Hashimoto
    • 2
    • 6
  • Hiroshi Kitazawa
    • 2
    • 7
  • Hirohisa Saito
    • 2
    • 8
  • Yukihiro Ohya
    • 2
    • 9
  1. 1.Department of Psychosocial MedicineNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  2. 2.Medical Support Center for Japan Environment and Children’s StudyNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  3. 3.Department of Education for Clinical ResearchNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  4. 4.Department of Health PolicyNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  5. 5.Shirota Obstetrical and Gynecological HospitalKanagawaJapan
  6. 6.Division of Rehabilitation Medicine and Developmental Evaluation CenterNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  7. 7.Department of General PediatricsMiyagi Children’s HospitalMiyagiJapan
  8. 8.Department of Allergy and ImmunologyNational Research Institute for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan
  9. 9.Department of Medical SubspecialtiesNational Center for Child Health and DevelopmentTokyoJapan

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