Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 50, Issue 6, pp 721–728 | Cite as

General Self-efficacy and Its Relationship to Self-reported Mental Illness and Barriers to Care: A General Population Study

  • Lena M. C. AnderssonEmail author
  • Chrystal Dea Moore
  • Gunnel Hensing
  • Gunilla Krantz
  • Carin Staland-Nyman
Brief Report

Abstract

Given the prevalence of mental illness worldwide, it is important to better understand the dynamics of mental health help-seeking behavior to improve access to care. The aim of this study was to investigate if general self-efficacy (GSE) was associated with self-reported mental illness and help-seeking behavior and barriers to care in a randomized population. This study utilized a mailed questionnaire completed by 3,981 persons aged 19–64 years who resided in Western Sweden. GSE was measured and logistic regression models calculated, controlling for various sociodemographic variables. Results showed that 25 % of men and 43 % of women reported a lifetime prevalence of mental illness that they felt could have benefitted from treatment. Of those, 37 % of the men and 27 % of the women reported barriers to care. Men and women with low GSE were more likely to suffer from mental illness compared with persons high in GSE, but GSE did not enhance help-seeking behavior or perceived barriers to care. The most prevalent barriers to care for both sexes were beliefs that the illness will pass by itself, doubt whether treatment works, lack of knowledge of where to go and feelings of shame. Overall, GSE scores did not differ among those who experienced various barriers to care with the exception of two barriers only among women.

Keywords

General self-efficacy Mental illness Barriers to care Unmet need 

References

  1. Alonso, J., Angermeyer, M., Bernert, S., Bruffaerts, R., Brugha, T., & Bryson, H. (2004). Use of mental health services in Europe: Reuslts from the European Study of Epidemiology of Mental Disorders (ESMeD) project. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 420(Suppl.), 47–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Andersson, L. M., Schierenbeck, I., Strumpher, J., Krantz, G., Topper, K., Backman, G., et al. (2013). Help-seeking behaviour, barriers to care and experiences of care among persons with depression in Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Affective Disorders, 151(2), 439–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Angermeyer, M. C., & Matschinger, H. (1996). Public attitude towards psychiatric treatment. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 94(5), 326–336.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Babor, T. F., Higgins-Biddle, J. C., Saunders, J. B., & Monteiro, M. G. (2001). AUDIT: The alcohol use disorders identification test. Guidelines for use in primary care (2nd ed., Vol. 88, pp. 791–804). Geneva: Department of Mental Health and Substance Dependence, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  5. Bandura, A. (1994). Self-efficacy. In V. S. Ramachaudran (Ed.), Encyclopedia of human behaviour (Vol.4, pp.71–81) (reprinted in H. Friedman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of mental health. San Diego: Academic Press, 1998). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy in changing societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University.Google Scholar
  7. Bebbington, P. E., Meltzer, H., Brugha, T. S., Farrell, M., Jenkins, R., Ceresa, C., et al. (2000). Unequal access and unmet need: Neurotic disorders and the use of primary care services. Psychological Medicine, 30(6), 1359–1367.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Blazer, D. G. (2002). Self-efficacy and depression in late life: A primary prevention proposal. Aging & Mental Health, 6(4), 315–324.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Cacioppo, J. T., Hughes, M. E., Waite, L. J., Hawkley, L. C., & Thisted, R. A. (2006). Loneliness as a specific risk factor for depressive symptoms: Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. Psychology and Aging, 21(1), 140–151.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cohen, S., & Willis, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychological Bulletin, 98, 310–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Corrigan, P. (2004). How stigma interferes with mental health care. American Psychologist, 59(7), 614–625.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Corrigan, P. W., Watson, A. C., & Barr, L. (2006). The self-stigma of mental illness: Implications for self-esteem and self-efficacy. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 25(9), 875–884.Google Scholar
  13. Dawson, D., Grant, B., & Ruan, W. (2005). The association between stress and drinking: Modifying effects of gender and vulnerability. Alcohol and Alcoholism, 40(5), 453–460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Eisenberg, D., Downs, M. F., Golberstein, E., & Zivin, K. (2009). Stigma and help seeking for mental health among college students. Medical Care Research and Review, 66(5), 522–541.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. European Commission. (2005). Green paper—Improving the mental health of the population: Towards a strategy on mental health for the European Union. In Health and Consumer Protection (Ed.), COM (2005) (p. 484). Brussels: European Commission.Google Scholar
  16. Fiori, K. L., McIlvane, J. M., Brown, E. E., & Antonucci, T. C. (2006). Social relations and depressive symptomatology: Self-efficacy as a mediator. Aging and Mental Health, 10(3), 227–239.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forsell, Y. (2006). The pathway to meeting need for mental health services in Sweden. Psychiatric Services, 57(1), 114–119.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gloaguen, V., Cottraux, J., Cucherat, M., & Blackburn, I. M. (1998). A meta-analysis of the effects of cognitive therapy in depressed patients. Journal of Affective Disorders, 49(1), 59–72.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Greco, A., Steca, P., Pozzi, R., Monzani, D., D’Addario, M., Villani, A., et al. (2013). Predicting depression from illness severity in cardiovascular disease patients: Self-efficacy beliefs, illness perception, and perceived social support as mediators. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine. doi: 10.1007/s12529-013-9290-5.
  20. Hämälainen, J., Isometsä, E., Sihvo, S., Kiviruusu, O., Pirkola, S., & Lönnqvist, J. (2009). Treatment of major depressive disorder in the Finnish general population. Depression and Anxiety, 26(11), 1049–1059.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hensing, G., Andersson, L., & Brage, S. (2006). Increase in sickness absence with psychiatric diagnosis in Norway: A general population-based epidemiologic study of age, gender and regional distribution. BMC Medicine, 4(1), 19.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Holmgren, K., Hensing, G., & Dellve, L. (2010). The association between poor organizational climate and high work commitments, and sickness absence in a general population of women and men. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 52(12), 1179–1185.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hyypää, M. T., & Mäki, J. (2001). Individual-level relationships between social capital and self-rated health in a bilingual community. Preventive Medicine, 32(2), 148–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Issakidis, C., & Andrews, G. (2002). Service utilisation for anxiety in a Australian community sample. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 37, 153–163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jackson, H., Judd, F., Komiti, A., Fraser, C., Murray, G., Robins, G., et al. (2007). Mental health problems in a rural context: What are the barriers to seeking help from professional providers? Australian Psychologist, 42(2), 147–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jerusalem, M., & Mittag, W. (1999). Self-efficacy in stressful life transitions. In A. Bandura (Ed.), Self-efficacy in changing societies (p. 179). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Joffe, R., Sokolov, S., & Streiner, D. (1996). Antidepressant treatment of depression: A metaanalysis. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41(10), 613–616.Google Scholar
  28. Jorm, A. F., Korten, A. E., Jacomb, P. A., Christensen, H., Rodgers, B., & Pollitt, P. (1997). “Mental health literacy”: A survey of the public’s ability to recognise mental disorders and their beliefs about the effectiveness of treatment. The Medical Journal of Australia, 166, 182–186.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Judd, F., Jackson, H., Komiti, A., Murray, G., Fraser, C., Grieve, A., et al. (2006). Help-seeking by rural residents for mental health problems: The importance of agrarian values. Australian and New Zeeland Journal of Psychiatry, 40, 769–776.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kawachi, I., & Berkman, L. F. (2001). Social ties and mental health. Journal of Urban Health, 78(3), 458–467.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kessler, R. C., Berglund, P. A., Bruce, M. L., Koch, J. R., Laska, E. M., Leaf, P. J., et al. (2001). The prevalence and correlates of untreated serious mental illness. Health Services Research, 36(6 Pt 1), 987–1007.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., Zhao, S., Nelson, C. B., Hughes, M., Eshleman, S., et al. (1994). Lifetime and 12-month prevalence of DSM-III-R psychiatric disorders in the United States. Results from the National Comorbidity Survey. Archives of General Psychiatry, 51(1), 8–19.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Kleim, B., Vauth, R., Adam, R., Stieglitz, R.-D., & Corrigan, P. (2008). Perceived stigma predicts low self-efficacy and poor coping in schizophrenia. Journal of Mental Health, 17(5), 482–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Leas, L., & McCabe, M. (2007). Health behaviors among individuals with schizophrenia and depression. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(4), 563–579.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lehtinen, V., Joukamaa, E., Jyrkinen, E., Raitsailo, R., Maatela, J., & Aromaa, A. (1990). Need for mental health services of the adult population in Finland: Results from the Mini Finland Health Survey. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 81, 426–431.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Link, B. G., Struening, E. L., Neese-Todd, S., Asmussen, S., & Phelan, J. C. (2001). Stigma as a barrier to recovery: The consequences of stigma for the self-esteem of people with mental illnesses. Psychiatric Services, 52(12), 1621–1626.Google Scholar
  37. Löve, J., Moore, C., & Hensing, G. (2012). Validation of the Swedish translation of the general self-efficacy scale. Quality of Life Research, 21(7), 1249–1253.Google Scholar
  38. Maciejewski, P. K., Prigerson, H. G., & Mazure, C. M. (2000). Self-efficacy as a mediator between stressful life events and depressive symptoms. Differences based on history of prior depression. British Journal of Psychiatry, 176, 373–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Meadows, G., Burgess, P., Fossey, E., & Harvey, C. (2000). Perceived need for mental health care, findings from the Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing. Psychological Medicine, 30, 645–656.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Meltzer, H., Bebbington, P., Brugha, T., Farrell, M., Jenkins, R., & Lewis, G. (2003). The reluctance to seek treatment for neurotic disorders. International Review of Psychiatry, 15(1–2), 123–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Phillips, S. M., & McAuley, E. (2013). Physical activity and fatigue in breast cancer survivors: A panel model examining the role of self-efficacy and depression. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 22(5), 773–781.PubMedCentralPubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Reiger, D. A., Narrow, W. E., Rae, D. S., Manderscheid, R. W., Locke, B. Z., & Goodwin, F. K. (1993). The de facto US mental and addictive disorder system. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50, 85–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Robins, L. N., & Reiger, D. A. (1991). Psychiatric disorders in America. New York: The Free Press.Google Scholar
  44. Schmutte, T., Flanagan, E., Bedregal, L., Ridgway, P., Sells, D., Styron, T., et al. (2009). Self-efficacy and self-care: Missing ingredients in health and healthcare among adults with serious mental illnesses. Psychiatric Quarterly, 80(1), 1–8.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Schwarzer, R., & Jerusalem, M. (1995). Generalized self-efficacy scale. In J. Weinman, S. Wright, & M. Johnston (Eds.), Measures in health psychology: A user’s portofolio. Casual and control beliefs (pp. 35–37). Windsdor, UK: NFER-NELSON.Google Scholar
  46. Spruill, T. M., Ogedegbe, G., Harrold, L. R., Potter, J., Scher, J. U., Rosenthal, P. B., et al. (2014). Association of medication beliefs and self-efficacy with adherence in urban Hispanic and African-American rheumatoid arthritis patients. Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, 73(1), 317–318.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Svensson, E., Nygard, J., Sørensen, T., & Sandanger, I. (2009). Changes in formal help seeking for psychological distress: The OsLof study. Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, 63, 260–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Tsuang, M. T. E., & Tohen, M. E. (2002). Textbook in psychiatric epidemiology (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley-Liss.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Uebelacker, L. A., Marootian, B. A., Pirraglia, P. A., Primack, J., Tigue, P. M., Haggarty, R., et al. (2012). Barriers and facilitators of treatment for depression in a Latino community: A Focus Group Study. Community Mental Health Journal, 48(1), 114–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. WHO. (2001). The world health report—Mental health, new understanding, new hope. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lena M. C. Andersson
    • 1
    Email author
  • Chrystal Dea Moore
    • 2
  • Gunnel Hensing
    • 1
  • Gunilla Krantz
    • 1
  • Carin Staland-Nyman
    • 1
  1. 1.Unit of Social Medicine, Department of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska AcademyUniversity of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  2. 2.Department of Social WorkSkidmore CollegeSaratoga SpringsUSA

Personalised recommendations