Measuring the Later Stages of the Recovery Journey: Insights Gained from Clubhouse Members
The Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) is a frequently used measure of recovery from mental illness but has previously been shown to poorly differentiate between more recovered consumers. This research aimed to: (1) identify components of later recovery stages; (2) ascertain the extent to which these are measured in the RAS; and (3) suggest modifications to improve the ability of the RAS to differentiate between more recovered consumers. Clubhouse members who scored high on the RAS participated in focus groups in which they discussed areas of recovery most recently or yet to be achieved. Constant comparative analysis of data indicated that later stages of recovery are characterized by: (a) accepting your illness and gaining control over symptoms (b) self love and optimism, (c) doing things for and experiencing pleasure, (d) contributing through meaningful activity, (e) having a diversity of friendships, (f) being needed and valued by others and (g) coming to terms with family relationships. Results suggest the RAS would be improved by addition of items, particularly in functional and social recovery domains.
KeywordsRecovery Clubhouse Measurement Relationships Meaningful activity
- Australian Health Ministers. (2003). National mental health plan 2003–2008. Canberra: Australian Government. Retrieved September 5th, 2007, from http://www7.health.gov.au/hsdd/mentalhe/resources/pdf/mhplan.pdf.
- Beard, J. H., Propst, R. N., & Malamud, T. J. (1982). The Fountain House model of psychiatric rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 5, 47–53.Google Scholar
- Campbell-Orde, T., Chamberlin, J., Carpenter, J., & Leff, H. S. (2005). Measuring the promise: A compendium of recovery measures (Volume 2). Cambridge, MA: The evaluation centre @ Human Services Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Department of Health. (2007). Commissioning framework for health and well-being. Retrieved July 5th, 2007, from www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_072604.
- Giffort, D., Schmook, A., Woody, C., Vollendorf, C., & Gervain, M. (1995). Recovery Assessment Scale. Cambridge, MA: Human Services Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Glaser, B. C., & Strauss, A. L. (1969). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New York: Aldine Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- International Centre for Clubhouse Development. (2010). International Clubhouse Directory Retrieved January 4th, 2011, from http://iccd.org/images/iccd_2010_clubhousedirectory.pdf.
- Krueger, R. A., & Casey, M. A. (2000). Focus groups: A practical guide for applied research (3rd ed.). California: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Lloyd, C., Waghorn, G., & Williams, P. L. (2008). Conceptualising recovery in mental health rehabilitation. British Journal of Occupational Therapy, 71, 321–328.Google Scholar
- Morgan, D. L. (1997). Focus groups as qualitative research (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- QSR. (2008). NVivo 8 qualitative data analysis software. QSR International Pty Ltd.Google Scholar
- Ralph, R. O., Kidder, K., & Phillips, D. (2000). Can we measure recovery? A compendium of Recovery and Recovery-related instruments. Cambridge, MA: Human Services Research Institute and Centre for Mental Health Services.Google Scholar
- Salyers, M. P., Godfry, J. L., Mueser, K. T., & Labriola, S. (2007). Measuring illness measurement outcomes: A psychometric study of clinician and consumer rating scales for illness self management and recovery. Community Mental Health Journal, 43, 459–480. doi: 10.1007/s10597-007-9087-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Center for Mental Health Services. (2006). National Consensus Statement on Mental Health Recovery Retrieved May 2nd, 2007, from http://mentalhealth.samhsa.gov/publications/allpubs/sma05-4129/.
- Weeks, G., Slade, M., & Hayward, M. (2010). A UK validation of the stages of recovery instrument. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, Online early.Google Scholar