Advertisement

Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 45, Issue 3, pp 188–198 | Cite as

Correlates of Secondhand Tobacco Smoke Exposure Among Persons with Severe and Persistent Mental Illness (SPMI) Accessing Community Mental Health Services

  • Chizimuzo T. C. OkoliEmail author
  • Joy L. Johnson
  • Leslie Malchy
Original Paper

Abstract

To examine the correlates of secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure in a sample of individuals with severe and persistent mental illness (SPMI) accessing community mental health services. Cross-sectional data were collected from a voluntary sample of 788 individuals with SPMI. Nonsmokers were more likely to be exposed on the street or at a bus stop, in a park or public place; whereas smokers were more likely to report SHS exposure where they lived and at their friend’s homes. In a multivariate model, only number of acquaintances who smoked and the number of sources of SHS exposure remained significantly associated with perceived frequency of SHS exposure when accounting for other correlates. There is a need for the enactment and enforcement of policies to curtail SHS exposure in outdoor, public, settings. Future research will be necessary to better understand the extent and impact of SHS exposure in this population.

Keywords

Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure Mental illness Community mental health Tobacco use and mental illness 

References

  1. Al-Delaimy, W. K., & Willett, W. C. (2008). Measurement of tobacco smoke exposure: Comparison of toenail nicotine biomarkers and self-Reports. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 17(5), 1255–1261. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-07-2695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barnoya, J., & Glantz, S. A. (2005). Cardiovascular effects of secondhand smoke: Nearly as large as smoking. Circulation, 111(20), 2684–2698. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.104.492215.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beratis, S., Katrivanou, A., & Gourzis, P. (2001). Factors affecting smoking in schizophrenia. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 42(5), 393–402. doi: 10.1053/comp.2001.26273.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonner, M. R., Nie, J., Han, D., Vena, J. E., Rogerson, P., Muti, P., et al. (2005). Secondhand smoke exposure in early life and the risk of breast cancer among never smokers (United States). Cancer Causes and Control, 16(6), 683–689. doi: 10.1007/s10552-005-1906-x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brennan, P., Buffler, P., Reynolds, P., Wu, A. H., Wichmann, H. E., Agudo, A., et al. (2004). Secondhand smoke exposure in adulthood and risk of lung cancer among never smokers: A pooled analysis of two large studies. International Journal of Cancer, 109(1), 125–131. doi: 10.1002/ijc.11682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brownson, R. C., Eriksen, M. P., Davis, R. M., & Warner, K. E. (1997). Environmental tobacco smoke:Health effects and policies to reduce exposure1. Annual Review of Public Health, 18(1), 163. doi: 10.1146/annurev.publhealth.18.1.163.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Burghuber, O. C., Punzengruber, C., Sinzinger, H., Haber, P., & Silberbauer, K. (1986). Platelet sensitivity to prostacyclin in smokers and non-smokers. Chest, 90(1), 34–38. doi: 10.1378/chest.90.1.34.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cameron, M., Wakefield, M., Trotter, L., & Inglis, G. (2003). Exposure to secondhand smoke at work: A survey of members of the Australian liquor, hospitality and miscellaneous workers union. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 27(5), 496–501. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-842X.2003.tb00821.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chan-Yeung, M., & Dimich-Ward, H. (2003). Respiratory health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Respirology (Carlton, Vic.), 8(2), 131–139. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.2003.00453.x.Google Scholar
  10. Cummings, K. M., Markello, S. J., Mahoney, M., Bhargava, A. K., McElroy, P. D., & Marshall, J. R. (1990). Measurement of current exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Archives of Environmental Health, 45(2), 74–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. de Leon, J., & Diaz, F. J. (2005). A meta-analysis of worldwide studies demonstrates an association between schizophrenia and tobacco smoking behaviors. Schizophrenia Research, 76(2–3), 135–157. doi: 10.1016/j.schres.2005.02.010.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. de Leon, J., Diaz, F. J., Rogers, T., Browne, D., & Dinsmore, L. (2002). Initiation of daily smoking and nicotine dependence in schizophrenia and mood disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 56(1–2), 47–54. doi: 10.1016/S0920-9964(01)00217-1.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Diwan, A., Castine, M., Pomerleau, C. S., Meador-Woodruff, J. H., & Dalack, G. W. (1998). Differential prevalence of cigarette smoking in patients with schizophrenic vs mood disorders. Schizophrenia Research, 33(1–2), 113–118. doi: 10.1016/S0920-9964(98)00045-0.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Dombrowski, S. C., Martin, R. P., & Huttunen, M. O. (2005). Gestational exposure to cigarette smoke imperils the long-term physical and mental health of offspring. Birth Defects Research (Part A). Clinical and Molecular Teratology, 73(3), 170–176. doi: 10.1002/bdra.20126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Eisner, M. D., Klein, J., Hammond, S. K., Koren, G., Lactao, G., & Iribarren, C. (2005). Directly measured second hand smoke exposure and asthma health outcomes. Thorax, 60(10), 814–821. doi: 10.1136/thx.2004.037283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ennett, S. T., & Bauman, K. E. (1993). Peer group structure and adolescent cigarette smoking: A social network analysis. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 34(3), 226–236. doi: 10.2307/2137204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fergusson, D. M., Goodwin, R. D., & Horwood, L. J. (2003). Major depression and cigarette smoking: Results of a 21-year longitudinal study. Psychological Medicine, 33, 1357–1367. doi: 10.1017/S0033291703008596.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gatzke-Kopp, L., & Beauchaine, T. (2007). Direct and passive prenatal nicotine exposure and the development of externalizing psychopathology. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 38(4), 255–269. doi: 10.1007/s10578-007-0059-4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gorlova, O. Y., Zhang, Y., Schabath, M. B., Lei, L., Zhang, Q., Amos, C. I., et al. (2006). Never smokers and lung cancer risk: A case-control study of epidemiological factors. International Journal of Cancer, 118(7), 1798–1804. doi: 10.1002/ijc.21561.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Grant, B. F., Hasin, D. S., Chou, S. P., Stinson, F. S., & Dawson, D. A. (2004). Nicotine dependence and psychiatric disorders in the United States: Results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(11), 1107–1115. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.61.11.1107.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hahn, E. J., Rayens, M. K., York, N., Okoli, C. T. C., Zhang, M., Dignan, M., et al. (2006). Effects of a smoke-free law on hair nicotine and respiratory symptoms of restaurant and bar workers. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 48(9), 906–913. doi: 10.1097/01.jom.0000215709.09305.01.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Iribarren, C., Friedman, G. D., Klatsky, A. L., & Eisner, M. D. (2001). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: Association with personal characteristics and self reported health conditions. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 55(10), 721–728. doi: 10.1136/jech.55.10.721.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaakkola, M., & Jaakkola, J. (1997). Assessment of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. The European Respiratory Journal, 10(10), 2384–2397. doi: 10.1183/09031936.97.10102384.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Khuder, S. A., Milz, S., Jordan, T., Price, J., Silvestri, K., & Butler, P. (2007). The impact of a smoking ban on hospital admissions for coronary heart disease. Preventive Medicine, 45(1), 3–8. doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2007.03.011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Klepeis, N. E., Ott, W. R., & Switzer, P. (2007). Real-time measurement of outdoor tobacco smoke particles. Journal of the Air and Waste Management Association, 57, 522–534.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lasser, K., Boyd, J. W., Woolhandler, S., Himmelstein, D. U., McCormick, D., & Bor, D. H. (2000). Smoking and mental illness: A population-based prevalence study. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284(20), 2606–2610. doi: 10.1001/jama.284.20.2606.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lawn, S., & Pols, R. (2005). Smoking bans in psychiatric inpatient settings? A review of the research. The Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 39(10), 866–885. doi: 10.1111/j.1440-1614.2005.01697.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Lee, K., Hahn, E. J., Pieper, N., Okoli, C. T. C., Repace, J., & Troutman, A. (2008). Differential impacts of smoke-free laws on indoor air quality. Journal of Environmental Health, 70(8), 24–30.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Mack, W. J., Islam, T., Lee, Z., Selzer, R. H., & Hodis, H. N. (2003). Environmental tobacco smoke and carotid arterial stiffness. Preventive Medicine, 37(2), 148–154. doi: 10.1016/S0091-7435(03)00097-5.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Makomaski Illing, E. M., & Kaiserman, M. J. (2004). Mortality attributable to tobacco use in Canada and its regions, 1998. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95(1), 38–44.Google Scholar
  31. McCabe, R. E., Chudzik, S. M., Antony, M. M., Young, L., Swinson, R. P., & Zolvensky, M. J. (2004). Smoking behaviors across anxiety disorders. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 18(1), 7–18. doi: 10.1016/j.janxdis.2003.07.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. McLellan, A. T., Kushner, H., Metzger, D., Peters, R., Smith, I., Grissom, G., et al. (1992). The fifth edition of the addiction severity index. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 9(3), 199–213. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(92)90062-S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. McLellan, A. T., Luborsky, L., Cacciola, J., Griffith, J., Evans, F., Barr, H. L., et al. (1985). New data from the addiction severity index. Reliability and validity in three centers. The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 173(7), 412–423. doi: 10.1097/00005053-198507000-00005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miller, M., Hemenway, D., Bell, N. S., Yore, M. M., & Amoroso, P. J. (2000). Cigarette smoking and suicide: A prospective study of 300, 000 male active-duty army soldiers. American Journal of Epidemiology, 151(11), 1060–1063.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Morris, C. D., Giese, A. A., Turnbull, J. J., Dickinson, M., & Johnson-Nagel, N. (2006). Predictors of tobacco use among persons with mental illnesses in a statewide population. Psychiatric Services (Washington, DC), 57(7), 1035–1038. doi: 10.1176/appi.ps.57.7.1035.Google Scholar
  36. National Cancer Institute. (1999). Health effects of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke: The report of the California environmental protection agency. Smoking and tobacco control monograph no. 10. Bethesda, MD: US Department of Health and Human Services, National Institutes of Health, National Cancer Institute.Google Scholar
  37. Norman, G. J., Ribisl, K. M., Howard-Pitney, B., & Howard, K. A. (1999). Smoking bans in the home and car: Do those who really need them have them? Preventive Medicine, 29(6), 581–589. doi: 10.1006/pmed.1999.0574.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Okoli, C. T. C., Hall, L. A., Rayens, M. K., & Hahn, E. J. (2007a). Measuring tobacco smoke exposure among smoking and nonsmoking bar and restaurant workers. Biological Research for Nursing, 9(1), 81–89. doi: 10.1177/1099800407300852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Okoli, C. T. C., Rayens, M. K., & Hahn, E. J. (2007b). Behavioral effects of nicotine exposure from secondhand tobacco smoke among bar and restaurant workers. Addictive Behaviors, 32(9), 1922–1928. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.013.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Okoli, C. T. C., Richardson, C. G., Ratner, P. A., & Johnson, J. L. (2008). An examination of the smoking identities and taxonomies of smoking behaviour of youth. Tobacco Control, 17(3), 151–158. doi: 10.1136/tc.2007.021683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Ostacher, M. J., Nierenberg, A. A., Perlis, R. H., Eidelman, P., Borrelli, D. J., Tran, T. B., et al. (2006). The relationship between smoking and suicidal behavior, comorbidity, and course of illness in bipolar disorder. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 67(12), 1907–1911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Otsuka, R., Watanabe, H., Hirata, K., Tokai, K., Muro, T., Yoshiyama, M., et al. (2001). Acute effects of passive smoking on the coronary circulation in healthy young adults. Journal of the American Medical Association, 286(4), 436–441. doi: 10.1001/jama.286.4.436.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Patten, C. A., Martin, J. E., & Owen, N. (1996). Can psychiatric and chemical dependency treatment units be smoke free? Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 13(2), 107–118. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(96)00040-2.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Pickett, M. S., Schober, S. E., Brody, D. J., Curtin, L. R., & Giovino, G. A. (2006). Smoke-free laws and secondhand smoke exposure in US non-smoking adults, 1999–2002. Tobacco Control, 15(4), 302–307. doi: 10.1136/tc.2005.015073.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Pilkington, P. A., Gray, S., & Gilmore, A. (2007). Health impacts of exposure to second hand smoke (SHS) amongst a highly exposed workforce: Survey of London casino workers. BMC Public Health, 7(147), 257. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pilkington, P. A., Gray, S., Gilmore, A. B., & Daykin, N. (2006). Attitudes towards second hand smoke amongst a highly exposed workforce: Survey of London casino workers. Journal of Public Health, 28(2), 104–110. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdi086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Pirkle, J. L., Bernert, J. T., Caudill, S. P., Sosnoff, C. S., & Pechacek, T. F. (2006). Trends in the exposure of nonsmokers in the U.S. population to secondhand smoke: 1988–2002. Environmental Health Perspectives, 114(6), 853–858.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Pitsavos, C., Panagiotakos, D. B., Chrysohoou, C., Skoumas, J., Tzioumis, K., Stefanadis, C., et al. (2002). Association between exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and the development of acute coronary syndromes: The CARDIO2000 case-control study. Tobacco Control, 11(3), 220–225. doi: 10.1136/tc.11.3.220.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Pope, C. A., Burnett, R. T., Thun, M. J., Calle, E. E., Krewski, D., Ito, K., et al. (2002). Lung cancer, cardiopulmonary mortality, and long-term exposure to fine particulate air pollution. Journal of the American Medical Association, 287(9), 1132–1141. doi: 10.1001/jama.287.9.1132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Prescott, S. L. (2008). Effects of early cigarette smoke exposure on early immune development and respiratory disease. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews, 9(1), 3–10. doi: 10.1016/j.prrv.2007.11.004.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Prochaska, J. J., Fletcher, L., Hall, S. E., & Hall, S. M. (2006). Return to smoking following a smoke-free psychiatric hospitalization. The American Journal on Addictions, 15(1), 15–22. doi: 10.1080/10550490500419011.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Rothberg, M., Heloma, A., Svinhufvud, J., Kahkonen, E., & Reijula, K. (1998). Measurement and analysis of nicotine and other VOCs in indoor air as an indicator of passive smoking. The Annals of Occupational Hygiene, 42(2), 129–134.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ruggeri, M., Leese, M., Thornicroft, G., Bisoffi, G., & Tansella, M. (2000). Definition and prevalence of severe and persistent mental illness. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 177(2), 149–155. doi: 10.1192/bjp.177.2.149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Sargent, R. P., Shepard, R. M., & Glantz, S. A. (2004). Reduced incidence of admissions for myocardial infarction associated with public smoking ban: Before and after study. British Medical Journal, 328(7446), 977–980. doi: 10.1136/bmj.38055.715683.55.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Stamatakis, K. A., Brownson, R. C., & Luke, D. A. (2002). Risk factors for exposure to environmental tobacco smoke among ethnically diverse women in the United States. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(1), 45–51. doi: 10.1089/152460902753473453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Travers, M. J., Cummings, A., Hyland, A., Repace, J., Babb, S., Pechacek, T., et al. (2004). Indoor air quality in hospitality venues before and after implementation of a clean indoor air law - Westeren New York, 2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 53(44), 1038–1041.Google Scholar
  57. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2006). The health consequences of involuntary exposure to tobacco smoke : A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta, Ga: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Coordinating Center for Health Promotion, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.Google Scholar
  58. Waxmonsky, J. A., Thomas, M. R., Miklowitz, D. J., Allen, M. H., Wisniewski, S. R., Zhang, H., et al. (2005). Prevalence and correlates of tobacco use in bipolar disorder: data from the first 2000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program. General Hospital Psychiatry, 27(5), 321–328. doi: 10.1016/j.genhosppsych.2005.05.003.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Whitlock, G., MacMahon, S., Vander Hoorn, S., Davis, P., Jackson, R., & Norton, R. (1998). Association of environmental tobacco smoke exposure with socioeconomic status in a population of 7725 New Zealanders. Tobacco Control, 7(3), 276–280.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Williams, J. M., & Ziedonis, D. (2004). Addressing tobacco among individuals with a mental illness or an addiction. Addictive Behaviors, 29(6), 1067–1083. doi: 10.1016/j.addbeh.2004.03.009.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Yolton, K., Dietrich, K., Auinger, P., Lanphear, B. P., Hornung, R., Lanphear, B. P., et al. (2005). Exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and cognitive abilities among U.S.children and adolescents. Environmental Health Perspectives, 113(1), 98–103.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Chizimuzo T. C. Okoli
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Joy L. Johnson
    • 1
    • 3
  • Leslie Malchy
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.NEXUS, University of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  2. 2.British Columbia Centre of Excellence for Women’s Health (BCCEWH)VancouverCanada
  3. 3.Nursing & Health Behaviour Research Unit, School of NursingUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada

Personalised recommendations