Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 44, Issue 2, pp 113–124 | Cite as

Development and Evaluation of a Patient-rated Version Of the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule (CANSAS-P)

  • Tom Trauer
  • Glen Tobias
  • Mike Slade


The comprehensive assessment of patients with severe mental health problems includes the evaluation of needs, as this informs service planning, and levels of unmet need have been found to be associated with lower subjective quality of life. The Camberwell Assessment of Need is the most widely used instrument for this purpose. We report the development and evaluation of a new, patient-rated, short form (CANSAS-P). The CANSAS-P exhibited comparable detection of needs with its predecessor, better identification of domains that are problematic for patients to respond to, good test-retest reliability, especially for unmet needs, and generally positive evaluations by patients. We recommend the CANSAS-P as the needs assessment measure of choice for completion by patients.


needs assessment Camberwell Assessment of Need self-rating quality of life 


  1. Andresen, R., Caputi, P., & Oades, L. G. (2000). Interrater reliability of the Camberwell Assessment of Need Short Appraisal Schedule. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 34, 856–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arvidsson, H. (2003). Met and unmet needs of severely mentally ill persons. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38, 373–379PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Eisen, S. V. (1996). Behavior and symptom identification scale (BASIS-32). In L. I. Sederer & B. Dickey (Eds.), Outcomes assessment in clinical practice. Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  4. Evans, S., Greenhalgh, J., & Connelly, J. (2000). Selecting a mental health needs assessment scale: guidance on the critical appraisal of standardized measures. Journal of Evaluation in Clinical Practice, 6(4), 379–393PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Hansson, L., Vinding, H. R., Mackeprang, T., Sourander, A., Werdelin, G., Bengtsson-Tops, A., et al. (2001). Comparison of key worker and patient assessment of needs in schizophrenic patients living in the community: A Nordic multicentre study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 103, 45–51PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Landis, J. R., & Koch, G. G. (1977). The measurement of observer agreement for categorical data. Biometrics, 33, 159–174PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Lasalvia, A., Ruggeri, M., Mazzi, M. A., & Dall’Agnola, R. B. (2000). The perception of needs for care in staff and patients in community-based mental health services. The South-Verona Outcome Project 3. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 102, 366–375PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Macpherson, R., Varah, M., Summerfield, L., & Slade, M. (2003). Staff and patient assessments of need in an epidemiologically representative sample of patients with psychosis. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 38(11), 662–667PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Middleton, H. C., Regueira, M. F., & Bramley, M. (1996). Formal needs assessment in practice: An application of the MRC Needs for Psychiatric Care Assessment Schedule. Journal of Mental Health, 5(1), 65–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Ochoa, S., Haro, J. M., Autonell, J., Pendas, A., Teba, F., Marquez, M., et al. (2003). Met and unmet needs of schizophrenia patients in a Spanish sample. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 29(2), 201–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Phelan, M., Slade, M., Thornicroft, G., Dunn, G., Holloway, F., Wykes, T., et al. (1995). The Camberwell Assessment of Need: The validity and reliability of an instrument to assess the needs of people with severe mental illness. British Journal of Psychiatry, 167, 589–595PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ruggeri, M., Leese, M., Slade, M., Bonizzato, P., Fontecedro, L., & Tansella, M. (2004). Demographic, clinical, social and service variables associated with higher needs for care in community psychiatric service patients. The South Verona Outcome Project 8. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 39, 60–68PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Schnapp, W. B., Hickey, J. S., & Bayles, S. (2006). The mental health needs council of Harris county: A case report on community collaboration and adult mental illness prevalence assessment and service need analysis. Adminstration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research, 33(4), 512–516CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Simons, L., & Petsch, A. (2002). Needs assessment and discharge: A Scottish perspective. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 9, 435–445PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Slade, M., Gillard, M., Kuipers, E., Leese, M., & Thornicroft, G. (2004). The impact of mental health on the quality of life: Are unmet needs the mediator? Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 110(S421), 57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Slade, M., Leese, M., Cahill, S., Thornicroft, G., & Kuipers, E. (2005). Patient-rated mental health needs and quality of life improvement. British Journal of Psychiatry, 187, 256–261PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Slade, M., Leese, M., Gillard, M., Kuipers, E., & Thornicroft, G. (2006). Pre-morbid IQ and response to routine outcome assessment. Psychological Medicine, 36, 1183–1191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Slade, M., Leese, M., Ruggeri, M., Kuipers, E., Tansella, M., & Thornicroft, G. (2004). Does meeting needs improve quality of life? Psychotherapy and Psychosomatics, 73, 183–189PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Slade, M., McCrone, P., Kuipers, E., Leese, M., Cahill, S., Parabiaghi, A., et al. (2006). Use of standardised outcome measures in adult mental health services: Randomised controlled trial. British Journal of Psychiatry, 189, 330–336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Slade, M., Phelan, G., Thornicroft, G., & Parkman, S. (1996). The Camberwell Assessment of Need (CAN): Comparison of assessments by staff and patients of the needs of the severely mentally ill. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 31, 109–113PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Slade, M., Phelan, M., & Thornicroft, G. (1998). A comparison of needs assessed by staff and by an epidemiologically representative sample of patients with psychosis. Psychological Medicine, 28, 543–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Sowers, W. (2005). Transforming systems of care: The American Association of Community Psychiatrists guidelines for recovery oriented services. Community Mental Health Journal, 41(6), 757–774PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Trauer, T., & Tobias, G. (2004). The Camberwell Assessment of Need and Behaviour and Symptom Identification Scale as routine outcome measures in a psychiatric disability support service. Community Mental Health Journal, 40(3), 211–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Wiersma, D. (2006). Needs of people with severe mental illness Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, 113(Supplementum 429), 115–119CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of Melbourne and Monash UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.Neami Inc.ThornburyAustralia
  3. 3.Institute of Psychiatry, King’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations