Community Mental Health Journal

, Volume 40, Issue 6, pp 513–523

Social Support and Recovery in People with Serious Mental Illnesses

  • Patrick W. Corrigan
  • Sean M. Phelan
Article

Abstract

This study examines the relationship between objective and subjective measures of social support with recovery from serious mental illness; recovery has been described as both an outcome state and an ongoing process. One hundred and seventy six people with serious mental illness completed the Recovery Assessment Scale, a process measure of recovery that assessed, among other factors, personal confidence, goal orientation, and non-domination by symptoms. They also were administered the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale, a semi-structured interview that assesses psychiatric symptom and represents recovery as an outcome. Finally, research participants completed the Social Network Scale, which assessed size of the overall network plus such important subnetworks as family, friends, and health professionals. The SNS also provided measures of the perceived satisfaction with, mutuality in, and obligation towards individuals in their support network. Results showed people with larger overall network size and more network satisfaction were likely to report higher factors on the Recovery Assessment Scale. For the most part, network size and satisfaction was not significantly associated with psychiatric symptoms. Implications of these findings for better understanding the association between social support and recovery are discussed.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

REFERENCES

  1. Anthony, W. A. (1993). Recovery from mental illness: The guiding vision of the mental health service system in the 1990's. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 16(4), 11–23.Google Scholar
  2. Barrera, M. (1986). Distinctions between social support concepts, measures, and models. American Journal of Community Psychology, 14(4), 413–445.Google Scholar
  3. Bengtsson-Tops, A. & Hansson, L. (2001). Quantitative and qualitative aspects of the social net-work in schizophrenic patients living in the community. Relationship to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical factors and subjective quality of life. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 47(3), 67–77.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Calabrese, J. D., & Corrigan, P. (in press). Beyond Dementia Praecox: Findings from long-term follow-up studies. In R. Ralph & P. Corrigan (Eds.), Recovery and Mental Illness: Consumer Visions and Research Paradigms. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  5. Campbell, J., Johnsen, M., Lichtenstein, C., Noel, J. G., Yates, B., McDorel Herr, B., et al. (2003). The consumer-operated services program multi-site research initiative: Overview, participant characteristics, and lessons learned from the collaborative study context. Manuscript submitted to Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research.Google Scholar
  6. Campbell, J., & Schraiber, R. (1989). The Well-Being Project: Mental health clients speak for themselves: A report of a survey conducted for the California Department of Mental Health, Office of Prevention. Sacremento, CA: The California Network of Mental Health Clients.Google Scholar
  7. Chamberlin, J. (1997, Fall/Winter). Confessions of a non-compliant patient. National Empowerment Center Newsletter.Google Scholar
  8. Corrigan, P., & Ralph, R. (in press). Recovery as consumer vision and research paradigm. In R. Ralph & P. Corrigan (Eds.), Recovery and Mental Illness: Consumer Visions and Research Paradigms. Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  9. Corrigan, P. W., Giffort, D., Rashid, F., Leary, M. & Okeke, I. (1999). Recovery as a psychological construct. Community Mental Health Journal, 35(3), 231–239.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Deegan, P. E. (1988). Recovery: The lived experience of rehabilitation. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 11,11–19.Google Scholar
  11. Denoff, M. S. & Pilkonis, P. A. (1987). The social network of the schizophrenic: Patient and residential determinants. Journal of Community Psychology, 15(2), 228-244.Google Scholar
  12. Erickson, D. H., Beiser, M., & Iacono, W. G. (1998). Social support predict 5-year outcome in 1st-episode schizophrenia. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 107(4), 681–685.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Furukawa, T. A., Harai, H., Hirai, T., Kitamura, T., & Takahashi, K. (1999). Social support questionnaire among psychiatric patients with various diagnoses and normal controls. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 34(4), 213–222.Google Scholar
  14. Hansson, L., Middelboe, T., Sorgaard, K. W., Bengtsson-Tops, A., Bjarnason, O., Merinder, L., et al. (2002). Living situation, subjective quality of life and social network among individuals with schizophrenia living in community settings. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 106(5), 343–350.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Harding, C. M. (1988). Course types in schizophrenia. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 14, 633–644.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Hogan, M. F. (2003). New Freedom Commission Report: The President's New Freedom Commission: Recommendations to transform mental health care in America. Psychiatric Services, 54, 1467–1474.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Leete, E. (1988). A consumer perspective on psychosocial treatment. Psychosocial Rehabilitation Journal, 12(2), 45–52.Google Scholar
  18. Liberman, R. P., & Kopelowicz, A. (in press). Recovery from schizophrenia: A criterion-based definition. In R. Ralph & P. Corrigan (Eds.), Recovery and Mental Illness: Consumer Visions and Research Paradigms. Washinton, D.C.: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
  19. Lipton, F. R., Cohen, C. I., Fischer, E., & Katz, S. E. (1981). Schizophrenia: A network crisis.Schizophrenia Bulletin, 7(1), 144–151.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Lukoff, D., Liberman, R. P., & Nuechterlein, K. H. (1986). Symptom monitoring in the rehabilitation of schizophrenic patients. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 12, 578–593.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Meeks, S. & Hammond, C. T. (2001). Social network characteristics among older outpatients with long-term mental illness. Journal of Mental Health and Aging, 7(4), 445–464.Google Scholar
  22. New Freedom Commission on Mental Health: Achieving the promise: Transforming mental health care in America. Final report. (No. DHHS pub no SMA-03-3832)(2003). Rockville, Md: Department of Health and Human Services.Google Scholar
  23. Pattison, E. M., Llamas, R., & Hurd, G. (1979). Social network mediation of anxiety. Psychiatric Annals, 9(9), 56–67.Google Scholar
  24. Ralph, R. (2000). Recovery. Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills, 4(3), 480–517.Google Scholar
  25. Randolph, E. T. & Escobar, J. I. (1985). Social support, ethnicity, and schizophrenia. Los Angeles, CA: Society for the Study of Psychiatry and Culture.Google Scholar
  26. Rudnick, A. & Kravetz, S. (2001). The relation of social support-seeking to quality of life in schizophrenia. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 189(4), 258–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Salokangas, R. K. R. (1997). Living situation, social network and outcome in schizophrenia: A five-year prospective follow-up study. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 96(6), 459–468.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Sarason, B. R., Sarason, I. G., & Pierce, G. R. (1990). Social support: An interactional view. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  29. Shrout, P. E. & Fleiss, J. L. (1979). Intraclass correlations: Uses in assessing rater reliability. Psychological Bulletin, 86, 420–428.Google Scholar
  30. Sokolovsky, J. Cohen, C., Berger, D., & Geiger, J. (1978). Personal networks of ex-mental patients in a Manhattan SRO hotel. Human Oganization, 37(1), 5–15.Google Scholar
  31. Stein, C. H., Rappaport, J., & Seidman, E. (1995). Assessing the social networks of people with psychiatric disability from multiple perspectives. Community Mental Health Journal, 31(4), 351–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Tolsdorf, C. C. (1976). Social networks, support, and coping: An exploratory study. Family Process, 15(4), 407–417.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Ventura, J., Green, M. F., Shaner, A., & Liberman, R. P. (1993). Training and quality assurance with the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale: ''The drift busters.'' American Journal of Public Health, 3(4), 221–244.Google Scholar
  34. Wojciechowska, A. Cechnicki, A., & Walczewski, K. (2002). Correlation between some features of social networks and treatment outcomes of schizophrenic patients three years after the first admission. A follow-up study. Archives of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, 4(3), 37–46.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick W. Corrigan
    • 1
  • Sean M. Phelan
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Chicago Center for Psychiatric RehabilitationUSA

Personalised recommendations