Computational Geosciences

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 587–605 | Cite as

Calibration of categorical simulations by evolutionary gradual deformation method

  • Hassan RezaeeEmail author
  • Denis Marcotte
Original Paper


Methods to simulate facies (or categorical) fields are numerous. However, calibration of simulated facies fields to large-scale or dynamic data still remains an important challenge due to the discrete nature of the fields, the non-linearity of the response with respect to the facies fields, and the non-derivability of the objective function used in calibration. A new gradual deformation method (GDM) is presented and tested for the calibration of facies realizations obtained by patch-multipoint simulation (MPS). The proposed method borrows ideas from pluriGaussian simulation, evolutionary algorithms, and GDM. Various test cases are considered: proportion maps, section of seismic amplitudes, inlet to outlet travel time along the shortest path, and water-cut curves obtained with a flow simulator. Both conditional/unconditional MPS simulations and 2D/3D problems are considered. In all studied test cases, the new GDM approach has provided excellent calibration to the target variables. The method is general as it can be used in conjunction with any facies simulator.


Gradual deformation Facies field Gaussian field Multipoint simulation Gibbs sampler Calibration PluriGaussian simulation 


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Research was partly financed by NSERC (RGPIN-2015-06653). Also authors would like to express their thanks to Pierre Biver and Tatiana Chugunova from TOTAL S.A. for providing the TI in Fig. 1.


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© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Civil, Geological and Mining DepartmentPolytechnique MontréalMontréalCanada

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