Grid adaptation for the Dirichlet–Neumann representation method and the multiscale mixed finite-element method
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A Dirichlet–Neumann representation method was recently proposed for upscaling and simulating flow in reservoirs. The DNR method expresses coarse fluxes as linear functions of multiple pressure values along the boundary and at the center of each coarse block. The number of flux and pressure values at the boundary can be adjusted to improve the accuracy of simulation results and, in particular, to resolve important fine-scale details. Improvement over existing approaches is substantial especially for reservoirs that contain high-permeability streaks or channels. As an alternative, the multiscale mixed finite-element (MsMFE) method was designed to obtain fine-scale fluxes at the cost of solving a coarsened problem, but can also be used as upscaling methods that are flexible with respect to geometry and topology of the coarsened grid. Both methods can be expressed in mixed-hybrid form, with local stiffness matrices obtained as “inner products” of numerically computed basis functions with fine-scale sub-resolution. These basis functions are determined by solving local flow problems with piecewise linear Dirichlet boundary conditions for the DNR method and piecewise constant Neumann conditions for MsMFE. Adding discrete pressure points in the DNR method corresponds to subdividing faces in the coarse grid and hence increasing the number of basis functions in the MsMFE method. The methods show similar accuracy for 2D Cartesian cases, but the MsMFE method is more straightforward to formulate in 3D and implement for general grids.
KeywordsCoarsening Upscaling Dirichlet–Neumann representation Multiscale mixed finite elements
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