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Landscape and population genetics reveal long distance sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) movements and a recent bottleneck in Minnesota

  • Charlotte L. RoyEmail author
  • Andrew J. Gregory
Research Article
  • 44 Downloads

Abstract

Sharp-tailed grouse (Tympanuchus phasianellus) are an area-sensitive species that relies on open landscapes of grass and brush. These areas have become highly fragmented in the Great Lakes Region by succession to forest, agriculture, and other human land uses. We used microsatellites in a landscape-genetic approach to identify landscape features that influence movement and connectivity for sharp-tailed grouse in Minnesota, where they have a regional stronghold. Feathers from leks and hunter wing submissions resulted in 367 individuals from the northwest (NW) and 84 from the east-central (EC) management regions. Both the NW and EC regions were genetically diverse and distinct, with high connectivity between them, although it is unclear whether this connection is contemporary or historical. Our analysis indicated that sharp-tailed grouse were structured across regions by land cover or by the amount of agriculture, grasslands, shrublands, and wet meadows on the larger landscape. Numerous long distance dispersal events were detected. Population clustering analysis indicated greatest support for two genetic clusters in the NW and three clusters in the EC region; however, mapping sample locations of individuals by assigned cluster revealed panmixia of clusters in the EC region. High genetic diversity, a low inbreeding coefficient, and significant excess in heterozygosity are consistent with a recent demographic compression or bottleneck in the EC region, and also consistent with surveys indicating a recent decline there. Sustained low population size or further declines would be expected to reduce genetic diversity. We recommend increasing grassland and shrubland quantity and quality to increase population size in the EC region soon.

Keywords

Connectivity Grassland Landscape genetics Population bottleneck Shrubland Tympanuchus phasianellus 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We would like to thank MNDNR staff and volunteers at Aitkin, Baudette, Bemidji, Cambridge, Cloquet, Crookston, Karlstad, International Falls, Tower, Thief River Falls, and Thief Lake work areas, staff and volunteers at Red Lake and Roseau River Wildlife Management Areas, and partners at Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge for participating in sharp-tailed grouse surveys and feather collection efforts. Eric Nelson assisted with collection of wings. Clarinda Wilson and Sophia Crosby also assisted with sharp-tailed grouse surveys and feather collection in 2015. Chris Scharenbroich helped prepare GPS units with imagery for field use. Wildlife Genetics International Lab completed genetic analyses. We would like to thank the hunters that submitted wings for this study. This project was funded in part by the Wildlife Restoration (Pittman-Robertson) Program Grant W-71-R-4. Two anonymous reviewers provided comments that greatly improved this manuscript.

Supplementary material

10592_2018_1128_MOESM1_ESM.docx (89 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 88 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Forest Wildlife Populations and Research GroupMinnesota Department of Natural ResourcesGrand RapidsUSA
  2. 2.Department of the Environment and SustainabilityBowling Green State UniversityBowling GreenUSA

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