Conservation Genetics

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 527–543 | Cite as

Genetic structure and genetic diversity of the endangered grassland plant Crepis mollis (Jacq.) Asch. as a basis for conservation management in Germany

  • Virginia K. Duwe
  • Ludo A. H. Muller
  • Katja Reichel
  • Elke Zippel
  • Thomas Borsch
  • Sascha A. Ismail
Research Article


Plant diversity is decreasing mainly through anthropogenic factors like habitat fragmentation, which lead to spatial separation of remaining populations and thereby affect genetic diversity and structure within species. Twenty populations of the threatened grassland species Crepis mollis were studied across Germany (578 individual plants) based on microsatellite genotyping. Genetic diversity was significantly higher in populations from the Alpine region than from the Central Uplands. Furthermore, genetic diversity was significantly positively correlated with population size. Despite smaller populations in the Uplands there were no signs of inbreeding. Genetic differentiation between populations was moderate (F ST = 0.09) and no isolation by distance was found. In contrast, large-scale spatial genetic structure showed a significant decrease of individual pairwise relatedness, which was higher than in random pairs up to 50 km. Bayesian analyses detected three genetic clusters consistent with two regions in the Uplands and an admixture group in the Alpine region. Despite the obvious spatial isolation of the currently known populations, the absence of significant isolation by distance combined together with moderate population differentiation indicates that drift rather than inter-population gene flow drives differentiation. The absence of inbreeding suggests that pollination is still effective, while seed dispersal by wind is likely to be impaired by discontinuous habitats. Our results underline the need for maintaining or improving habitat quality as the most important short term measure for C. mollis. For maintaining long-term viability, establishing stepping stone habitats or, where this is not possible, assisted gene flow needs to be considered.


Microsatellites Genetic diversity Crepis mollis Inbreeding Gene flow Spatial genetic structure 



Fine-scale spatial genetic structure


Large-scale spatial genetic structure



We thank L. Botschen and R. Wanke for technical assistance with the lab work and especially R. Wanke for support in the field. We are thankful to E. Sossai, R. Hand, T. Gregor, C. Niederbichler, F. Richter, H. Korsch, E. von Raab-Straube, A. Schulte, R. Götte, K. Rieche, W. Westhus, D. Franke, and U. Hermann from the Carl-Orff-Stiftung who gave information about records or helped finding the study species. Special thanks are due to E. Welk who has generously provided the distribution map of C. mollis and to K. Govers, G. Dröge and C. Stiegler for their general support. We thank the authorities at state and regional level who granted permits for collection in protected areas. This study was funded by the German Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) under grant number FKZ 3512-86-0400 in the context of the project “Integration von Ex-situ und In-situ- Maßnahmen zur Erhaltung gefährdeter Blütenpflanzen in Deutschland-ein Modellvorhaben zur Umsetzung der Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC)”.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

10592_2017_1025_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (781 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 780 KB)


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botanischer Garten und Botanisches Museum Berlin, Dahlem Centre of Plant SciencesFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  2. 2.Institut für Biologie-Botanik, Dahlem Centre of Plant SciencesFreie Universität BerlinBerlinGermany
  3. 3.School of Biological SciencesUniversity of AberdeenAberdeenUK

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