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Conservation Genetics

, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 193–205 | Cite as

Floreana Island re-colonization potential of the Galápagos short-eared owl (Asio flammeus galapagoensis)

  • Sarah Schulwitz
  • Paula A. Castaño
  • Denis Mosquera
  • Milton Chugcho
  • Karl J. Campbell
  • Jeff A. Johnson
Research Article

Abstract

Non-native invasive species threaten Galápagos’ endemic biodiversity, and increasing efforts are underway to protect its species from further harm. One such project is focused on the eradication of invasive rodents using rodenticide bait on Floreana, the archipelago’s sixth largest island. Short-eared owls (Asio flammeus galapagoensis) that consume poisoned rodents will, therefore, be at risk of secondary poisoning. If negatively impacted, it is not known to what degree the Floreana Island short-earned owl population is isolated, and whether potential re-colonization exists from its closest neighboring large population on Santa Cruz. Based on eight microsatellite loci and mtDNA control region sequence data from museum and contemporary samples, the short-eared owl populations on Floreana and Santa Cruz are not isolated from each other. However, gene flow is asymmetric from Floreana to Santa Cruz and not in the opposite direction. Morphometric data, including tarsus and bill size, and behavioral observations corroborate the genetic results and suggest that the Floreana population may possess unique traits compared to neighboring populations. For example, Floreana short-eared owls are more crepuscular than neighboring islands, which are predominately nocturnal, and were also non-responsive to inter-island call back recordings. Therefore, these results have important management implications concerning short-eared owl persistence on Floreana following rodenticide application. We recommend that managers implement additional precautions to protect the short-eared owl population until the risk of secondary poisoning has passed such as maintaining individuals in captivity. This study provides no evidence to suggest that short-eared owls are likely to disperse from Floreana’s closest large population on Santa Cruz if the local population is negatively impacted by rodenticide exposure, and the observed morphological and behavioral traits argue against translocating owls between islands.

Keywords

Galápagos Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus Floreana Island Santa Cruz Conservation Galápagos 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We thank the Galápagos National Park Directorate (GNPD) for granting the Science permits (PC-24-14 and PC-24-15), for assisting in collecting the samples utilized on this study, and for providing the appropriate support. Thanks also to Galapagos National Park guards Marlon Ramon, Anibal Altamirano, Andrea Loyola, Fidelino Gaona, and Simon Villamar. Many thanks to Francesca Cunninghame for helping with sample/data collection, and to Julia Ponder for providing information and feedback on appropriate short-eared owl trapping methods. This project was financed by Island Conservation and The Leona M. and Harry B. Helmsley Charitable Trust. We thank the California Academy of Sciences, American Museum of Natural History, and the Museum of Comparative Zoology for providing museum samples.

Supplementary material

10592_2017_1007_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (313 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 314 KB)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Schulwitz
    • 1
    • 6
  • Paula A. Castaño
    • 2
  • Denis Mosquera
    • 3
  • Milton Chugcho
    • 4
  • Karl J. Campbell
    • 2
    • 5
  • Jeff A. Johnson
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biological Sciences, Institute of Applied SciencesUniversity of North TexasDentonUSA
  2. 2.Island ConservationPuerto AyoraEcuador
  3. 3.Department of Behavioural BiologyUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria
  4. 4.Floreana Island Technical OfficeGalápagos National Park DirectoratePuerto Velasco IbarraEcuador
  5. 5.School of Geography, Planning & Environmental ManagementThe University of QueenslandSt LuciaAustralia
  6. 6.The Peregrine FundBoiseUSA

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