How many conservation units are there for the endangered grassland earless dragons?
- 526 Downloads
Species are the most commonly recognised unit for conservation management, yet significant variation can exist below the level of taxonomic recognition and there is a lack of consensus around how a species might be defined. This definition has particular relevance when species designations are used to apportion conservation effort and when definitions might be made through legislation. Here, we use microsatellite DNA analyses to test the proposition that the last remaining populations of the endangered grassland earless dragon (Tympanocryptis pinguicolla) harbour substantial cryptic genetic variation. Our study provides strong evidence that long historical isolation and the recent impacts of urbanization, have led to genetic differentiation in microsatellite DNA allele frequencies and high numbers of private alleles among three genetic clusters. This differentiation is partially concordant with previous mitochondrial DNA analyses, which show the two regions (Canberra and Monaro) where this species exists, to be reciprocally monophyletic, but differs through the identification of a third genetic cluster that splits a northern Canberra cluster from that of southern Canberra. Our data also identify a stark contrast in population genetic structure between clusters such that high levels of genetic structure are evident in the highly urbanised Canberra region but not in the largely rural Monaro region. We conclude that this species, like many reptiles, harbours considerable cryptic variation and currently comprises three distinct and discrete units. These units could be classified as separate species for the purpose of conservation under the relevant Australian and international Acts drawing management appropriate to that status.
KeywordsConservation units Evolutionary significant units Microsatellite DNA Temperate grasslands
We thank all the landholders for access to their property. We also thank Murray Evans and a large number of volunteers for the collection of the tissue samples and Alica Tschierschke for producing Fig. 2. This project was partly funded by ARC Grants LP0776987 and LP110200029 and industry partners the Canberra International Airport and Environment ACT. All aspects of this study were conducted under the University of Canberra’s Animal Ethics permit numbers CEAE 05–11, CEAE 07–05, CEAE 08–18, and CEAE 11-14. Trapping was conducted under ACT Government Territory and Municipal Services Licenses LT2006241, LT2008290, LT2009383, LT2010454, LT2012617, LT2014770 and National Parks and Wildlife Act 1974 Section 132c (Clause 23) Scientific Licences SL100290, SL100756 and SL101118.
- Anon (2015) EPBC Act list of threatened fauna. In: species profile threat. Database. http://www.environment.gov.au/cgi-bin/sprat/public/publicthreatenedlist.pl?wanted=fauna. Accessed 29 Oct 2015
- Benson J (1994) The native grasslands of the Monaro region: Southern Tablelands of NSW. Cunninghamia 3:609–650Google Scholar
- Dimond WJ, Osborne WIS, Evans MC et al (2012) Back to the brink: population decline of the endangered grassland earless dragon (Tympanocryptis pinguicolla) following its rediscovery. Conserv Genet 7:132–149Google Scholar
- Durand E, Chen C, Francois O (2009) TESS version 2.3—reference manual. http://membrestimc.imag.fr/Olivier.Francois/tess.html
- IUCN (2014) The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. In: IUCN Red List Threat. Species. Version 2014.1. http://www.iucnredlist.org
- Jombart T, Collins C (2015) A tutorial for discriminant analysis of principal components (DAPC) using adegenet 2.0.0. http://adegenet.r-forge.r-project.org/files/tutorial-dapc.pdf published 23 June 2015
- Melville J, Smith K, Hobson R et al (2014) The role of integrative taxonomy in the conservation management of cryptic species: the taxonomic status of endangered earless dragons (agamidae: Tympanocryptis) in the grasslands of Queensland, Australia. PLoS One. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0101847 Google Scholar
- Raymond M, Rousset F (1995) GENEPOP (version 1.2): population genetics software for exact tests and ecumenicism. J Hered 86:248–249Google Scholar
- Robertson P, Evans MC (2009) National recovery plan for the Grassland Earless Dragon (Tympanocryptis pinguicolla)—as varied October 2012. ACT Government, Department of Territory and Municipal Services, CanberraGoogle Scholar