Advertisement

Conservation Genetics

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 247–251 | Cite as

Theodoxus fluviatilis’ re-establishment in the River Rhine: a native relict or a cryptic invader?

  • René Gergs
  • Meike Koester
  • Karsten Grabow
  • Franz Schöll
  • Anne Thielsch
  • Andreas Martens
Short Communication

Abstract

The endangered freshwater snail Theodoxus fluviatilis is a widely distributed European member of the gastropod family Neritidae. This taxon was abundantly found in the River Rhine until the end of the 20th century, and was considered to be extinct there since the late 1990s. Since 2006, a new, but morphological different form of T. fluviatilis has been recorded in the Upper Rhine region. Our aim was to identify the source of the recent populations by analysing individuals from five sites throughout the current known distribution along the River Rhine. Therefore, we sequenced the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene, and compared the data with those from individuals collected in the early 1990s and 40 already known haplotypes from a pan-European study. Our results show that all studied recent Rhine individuals harbour only one COI haplotype that corresponds to an already known haplotype described from the River Danube and the Ukraine region near the Black Sea. This suggests that a re-colonisation of the River Rhine by T. fluviatilis from the River Danube is the most likely scenario of the re-establishment of the species. This route of invasion is known for other freshwater taxa that originate from the Ponto-Caspian region. Even though the current Rhine populations belong to T. fluviatilis their invasion may have consequences for the native Central European populations. Therefore, we recommend considering the current Rhine population as ‘cryptic invader’.

Keywords

Invasion mtDNA COI Main-Danube canal Neritidae 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We sincerely thank G. Becker, C. Hellman and U. Mürle for providing specimen from the River Rhine.

References

  1. Bernatchez L (2001) The evolutionary history of brown trout (Salmo trutta L.) inferred from phylogeographic, nested clade, and mismatch analyses of mitochondrial DNA variation. Evolution 55:351–379PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bij de Vaate A, Jazdzewski K, Ketelaars HAM, Gollasch S, van der Velde G (2002) Geographical patterns in range extension of Ponto-Caspian macroinvertebrate species in Europe. Can J Fish Aquat Sci 59:1159–1174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Briski E, Ghabooli S, Bailey SA, MacIsaac HJ (2012) Invasion risk posed by macroinvertebrates transported in ships’ ballast tanks. Biol Invasion 14:1843–1850CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bunje PME (2005) Pan-European phylogeography of the aquatic snail Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda: Neritidae). Mol Ecol 14:4323–4340PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Gabel F, Pusch MT, Breyer P, Burmester V, Walz N, Garcia X-F (2011) Differential effects of wave stress on the phyiology and behaviour of native versus non-native benthic invertebrates. Biol Invasion 13:1843–1853CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gemmer I, Gergs R (2013) Characterization of the first twelve microsatellite loci for the amphipod Gammarus roeselii (Crustacea: Amphipoda). Conserv Genet Resour 5:955–957CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hewitt G (2000) The genetic legacy of the Quaternary ice ages. Nature 405:907–913PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hirschfelder H-J, Salewski V, Nerb W, Korb J (2011) Schnelle Ausbreitung einer Schwarzmeerform der Gemeinen Kahnschnecke Theodoxus fluviatilis (LINNAEUS 1758) in der bayerischen Donau. Mitt dtsch malakozool Ges 85:1–10Google Scholar
  9. Johnson SG (2005) Age, phylogeography and population structure of the microendemic banded spring snail, Mexipyrgus churinceanus. Mol Ecol 14:2299–2311PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Leuven RSEW, van der Velde G, Baijens I, Snijders J, van der Zwart C, Lenders HJR, bij de Vaate A (2009) The river Rhine: a global highway for dispersal of aquatic invasive species. Biol Invasion 11:1989–2008CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lucey J, McGarrigle ML, Clabby KJ (1992) The distribution of Theodoxus fluviatilis (L) in Ireland. J Chonchol 34:91–101Google Scholar
  12. Meinert W, Kinzelbach R (1985) Die limnischen Schnecken und die Muscheln von Rheinland-Pfalz (Mollusca: Gastropoda et Bivalvia). Mainzer Naturwiss Arch Beiheft 4:58 pp+mapsGoogle Scholar
  13. Nesemann H (1993) Die rezenten Arten der Gattung Theodoxus Montfort 1810, im ungarischen Tiefland, ein Beitrag zur Zoogeographie der danubischen Süßwassertierwelt. Club Conchylia Inf 25:67–78Google Scholar
  14. Peters L, Traunspurger W (2012) Temporal patterns in macrograzer effects on epilithic algae and meiofauna: a comparative approach to test for single species and whole grazer community effects. Aquat Sci 74:229–240CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Posada D (2008) jModelTest: phylogenetic model averaging. Mol Biol Evol 25:1253–1256PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. R Development Core Team (2011) R: a language and environment for statistical computing, vol htttp://www.R-project.com. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria
  17. Rius M, Darling JA (2014) How important is intraspecific genetic admixture to the success of colonising populations? Trend Ecol Evol 29:233–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Salzburger W, Brandstätter A, Gilles A, Parson W, Hempel M, Sturmbauer C, Meyer A (2003) Phylogeography of the vairone (Leuciscus souffia, Risso 1826) in Central Europe. Mol Ecol 12:2371–2386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Schliep KP (2011) phangorn: Phylogenetic analysis in R. Bioinform 27:592–593CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Schöll F, Tittizer T (1988) Wiederauftreten größerer Populationen von Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linné 1758) am Mittelrhein. Mitt Dtsch Malakolzool Ges 43:35–36Google Scholar
  21. Schrimpf A, Theissinger K, Dahlem J, Maguire I, Pârvulescu L, Schulz HK, Schulz R (2014) Phylogeography of noble crayfish (Astacus astacus) reveals multiple refugia. Freshw Biol 59:761–776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schultz H, Schultz O (2001) Erstnachweis der Gemeinen Kahnschnecke, Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758) in Österreich (Gastropoda: neritidae). Ann Naturhist Mus Wien 103B:231–241Google Scholar
  23. Westermann F, Schöll F, Stock A (2007) Rediscovery of the river nerite Theodoxus fluviatilis in the German Upper Rhine. Lauterbornia 59:67–72Google Scholar
  24. Yildirim MZ (1999) The Prosobranchia (Gastropoda: Mollusca) species of Turkey and their zoogeographic distribution: 1. Fresh and brackish water. Turk Zool Derg 23:877–900Google Scholar
  25. Zettler MA (2008) Taxonomy and distribution of the genus Theodoxus Montfort, 1810 in Germany. Presentation of historical and recent data including a bibliography. Mollusca 26:13–72Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • René Gergs
    • 1
  • Meike Koester
    • 1
  • Karsten Grabow
    • 2
  • Franz Schöll
    • 3
  • Anne Thielsch
    • 1
  • Andreas Martens
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute for Environmental SciencesUniversity of Koblenz-LandauLandauGermany
  2. 2.Institute of BiologyUniversity of Education KarlsruheKarlsruheGermany
  3. 3.German Federal Institute of Hydrology (BfG)KoblenzGermany

Personalised recommendations